Your team roles

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Your answers have been used to identify which team role(s) suits you best. This suitability is expressed as a percentage.

The nine team roles are the Executive, Explorer, Innovator, Analyst, Driver, Chairperson, Completer, Team player and Expert.

A total of 100 points are divided over the various roles. A group role can have up to 25 points. The graph below shows how each team role fits you. After the graph, each team role is explained in detail, in the order of its importance to you.

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Description

Reference/Bibliography
Harvard Gatton Style
Adapted from the Style manual for authors, editors
and printers / revised by Snooks & Co. 2002
How to Guide
When writing assignments you have to cite (acknowledge) the source of your ideas and quotes in sufficient detail so
that lecturers, and others, can locate the item. Prior to starting your assignment check with your lecturer/tutor for
the style preferred by the School. Use this guide if your lecturer/tutor indicates that you should use the Harvard style
of referencing.
Keep in mind the following points:
• Write down all the citation details of a source as you use it.
• Place quotation marks ‘_’ around a direct quote.
• When using a direct quote include the page number(s) in the in-text reference.
• You are advised to check with your lecturer as to their preference on the use of page numbers.
• The Reference List, located at the end of the assignment, lists all works cited.
Books
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of book – surname and initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher,
Place of publication.
A book with one author
Reference list:
Jackson, SM 2003, Australian mammals: biology and captive management, CSIRO Publishing,
Melbourne.
In-text referencing examples:
‘During warm weather Tasmanian devils will often bathe their feet’ (Jackson 2003, p. 245).
Jackson (2003) states that Tasmanian devils enjoy wetting their feet if the weather is warm.
A book with two authors
Reference list:
Taiz, L & Zeiger, E 2002, Plant physiology, 3rd edn, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.
In-text referencing examples:
Physiological processes are shared by all plants (Taiz & Zeiger 2002).
Taiz and Zeiger (2002, pp. 94-5) state ‘plants have common physiological processes.’
A book with three or more authors
Reference list:
Include the names of all the authors, in the order they appear in the item.
McDonald, P, Greenhalgh, RA, Edwards, JFD & Morgan, CA 2002, Animal nutrition, 6th edn, Pearson
Education, Harlow.
In-text referencing examples:
If there are three or more authors, list only the first, followed by ‘et al.’.
Water is a key component in animal foods (McDonald et al. 2002).
McDonald et al. (2002) indicate water to be a key component in animal foods.
November 2017
A book without an author
Reference list:
The little green data book 2002, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington.
In-text referencing examples:
In Australia, nine of the mammal species are listed as threatened (The little green data book, 2002).
According to The little green data book (2002) nine of Australia’s mammal species are …
A book by an organisation or institution
Reference list:
National Research Council 2007, Nutrient requirements of horses, 6th rev. edn, National Academies
Press, Washington, DC.
In-text referencing examples:
It is unnecessary to add fluorine to the equine diet (National Research Council 2007).
The National Research Council (2007) suggests it is unnecessary to add fluorine to the equine diet.
An edited book
Reference list:
Sutherland, WJ (ed.) 2006, Ecological census techniques: a handbook, 2nd edn, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge.
In-text referencing examples:
A structured approach is necessary when planning and undertaking a wildlife census (Sutherland 2006)
Sutherland (2006) stresses the need for a structured approach when planning …
An eBook
Reference list:
If the eBook is also available in print, reference it as a print book. If the eBook is available online only,
reference it as an eBook (Add the name of the provider of the electronic version in brackets).
Weir, J (ed.) 2012, Country, native title and ecology, ANU Press, Acton, A.C.T., viewed 20 October
2014, http://press.anu.edu.au?p=175041 (ANU E Press).
In-text referencing examples:
The ecological niche is how ecologists describe the innate knowledge animals possess on how to
survive in their particular habitat (Weir 2012).
Weir (2012) states that successful ecological management should involve collaboration with
indigenous peoples.
Chapter in a book
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of chapter – surname and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of chapter – in single quotation
marks’, in Editor(s) of book (eds), Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication, Page
numbers.
Reference list:
November 2017
Laca, E & Demment, M 1996, ‘Foraging strategies of grazing animals’, in J Hodgson & A Illius (eds), The
ecology and management of grazing systems, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 137-58.
In-text referencing examples:
Foraging behaviour has long term effects on rangelands (Laca & Demment 1996).
Laca and Demment (1996) look at the long term effects of foraging behaviour on rangelands.
Journal Articles
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of journal article – surname and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of journal article – in single
quotation marks’, Title of journal – italicised, Volume, Issue or number, Page number(s).
Print or Electronic with page numbers
Reference list:
Hawkins, CE, Baars, C, Hesterman, H, Mooney, GJ & Jones, ME 2006, ‘Emerging disease and population
decline of an island endemic, the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii’, Biological Conservation, vol. 131,
no. 2, pp. 307-24.
In-text referencing examples:
‘The Tasmanian devil population is in decline’ (Hawkins et al. 2006, p. 307).
Hawkins et al. (2006) found the threat to the Tasmanian devil population continues.
Electronic without page numbers
Reference list:
Gaba, S, Gabriel, E, Chadœuf, J Bonneu, F & Bretagnolle, V 2016, ‘Herbicides do not ensure for higher wheat
yield, but eliminate rare plant species’, Nature Scientific Reports, vol. 6, viewed 23 May 2017,
https://www-nature-com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/articles/srep30112.
In-text referencing examples:
Weed control by herbicides is considered essential for crop production, but can have harmful
environmental consequences Gaba et al. (2016).
Gaba et al. (2016) state that weed control by herbicides is considered essential for crop production, but
can have harmful environmental consequences.
Webpages
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of page – (person or organisation) Year (page created or revised), Title of page – italicised, viewed
date-in-full, web address.
A webpage with an author
Reference list:
Department of the Environment and Water Resources 2007, Threatened species and ecological
threatened communities, viewed 23 May 2017,
http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/.
In-text referencing examples:
The effect of human activity on native habitats places many unique species at risk (Department of the
Environment and Water Resources 2007).
The Department of the Environment and Water Resources (2007) indicates native habitat is changed by
human activity, which in turn places many unique species at risk.
November 2017
A webpage without an author or year
Use the title of the webpage if there is no author. Use n.d. (no date) if you are unable to identify the
year a page was created or revised.
Reference list:
Atlas of living Australia n.d., viewed 23 May 2017, http://www.ala.org.au/.
In-text referencing examples:
The Major Mitchell’s cockatoo has a status of least concern in the Northern Territory, while in South
Australia the species is listed as near threatened. (Atlas of living Australia n.d.).
Reports
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of report – (person or organisation) Year of Publication, Title of report – italicised, Publisher, Place
of publication, (viewed date-in-full, web address – if accessed electronically).
Reference list:
Print version
Australian State of the Environment Committee 2016, Australia state of the environment 2016,
Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Electronic version
Australian State of the Environment Committee 2016, Australia state of the environment 2016,
Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra, viewed 23 May 2017,
https://soe.environment.gov.au/download/reports.
In-text referencing examples:
Population growth in Australia along the coastline is creating substantial pressure on coastal environments
and ecosystems (Australian State of the Environment Committee 2016).
According to the Australian State of the Environment Committee (2016) population growth in Australia along
the coastline is creating substantial pressure on coastal environments and ecosystems.
Conference papers
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of paper – surname and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of paper – in single quotation marks’,
Title of published proceeding which may include place held and date(s) – italicised, Publisher, Place of
Publication, Page number(s), (viewed date-in-full, web address – if accessed electronically).
Reference list:
Print version (Published)
Polkinghorne, R 2006, ‘Guaranteed eating quality: making it work’, Australian beef – the leader: the
impact of science on the beef industry, Armidale, NSW, 7-8 March, CRC for Beef Genetic Technologies,
Armidale, pp. 121-3.
Print version (Unpublished)
Fitt, G 2003, ‘Implementation and impact of transgenic Bt cottons in Australia’, paper presented to
Cotton Production for the New Millennium, Proceedings of the third World Cotton Research
Conference, Pretoria, South Africa, 9-13 March, 2003.
Electronic version
Pluske, J, Burton, M, Rigby, D & Vercoe, P 2009, ‘Cattle breeding in Northern Australia: revealing how
consumers react to new technologies’, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society 53rd
November 2017
Annual Conference, Cairns, 10-13 February, Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics, viewed 24
May, 2017, http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/48167.
In-text referencing examples:
The beef industry in Northern Australia has found that consumers can react negatively to
reproduction technologies designed to produce higher quality meat in the Bos taurus cattle breed.
(Pluske et al. 2009).
Pluske et al. (2009) state that the beef industry in Northern Australia has found that consumers can
react negatively to reproduction technologies to produce higher quality meat in the Bos taurus
cattle breed.
Newspaper Articles
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of article – surname and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of article – in single quotation marks’,
Title of newspaper – italicised, Day month, Page number(s).
Reference list:
Roux, M 2007, ‘Climate conducive to corporate action’, The Australian, 4 September, p. 14.
In-text referencing examples:
Australians are prepared to tackle climate change but need leadership (Roux 2007).
Roux (2007) argues that Australians are willing to tackle climate change but need leadership.
Study Materials provided by a University
Elements of the citation
Name of author(s) or the institution responsible Year of publication, Title and subtitle of publication –
italicised, Name of institution, Location of institution.
Reference list:
McGowan, C, Johnston, S, McLean, R, Shini, S & Powell, V 2007, ANIM2011 Animal physiology: learning
guide, University of Queensland, Gatton.
In-text referencing examples:
Body fluid is made up of body water and its dissolved solutes (McGowan et al. 2007).
McGowan et al. (2007) refer to body fluid as body water and its dissolved solutes.
Tutorial Handout (unpublished)
The titles of unpublished items are enclosed in single quotation marks and are not italicised.
Reference list:
‘The respiratory system’, Tutorial handout distributed in the unit, ANIM2011 Animal physiology,
University of Queensland, Gatton on 2 September 2007.
In-text referencing examples:
… structure of the lungs (‘The respiratory system’ 2007)
‘The respiratory system’ (2007) shows the structure of the lungs to be …
Tables, Diagrams or Images
When reproducing or copying part or all of a diagram, table or image, you must reference the source.
November 2017
If a table, diagram or image is taken from a book, reference as from book. If the table, diagram or image
is taken from a website, then reference as a webpage.
Reference list:
Newton, AC 2007, Forest ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques, Techniques in ecology
and conservation series, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Table, diagram or image labels:
References are placed directly under the table, diagram or image.
Video, DVD, TV or Radio
Elements of the citation
Title – italicised Year of recording, Format, Publisher, Place of recording, (viewed date-in-full, web address
– if accessed electronically).
Reference list:
Horse breeding: foaling management 1991, video recording, Equine Educational Videos, Lochinvar via
Maitland, NSW.
Wildlife death toll in Victorian fires 2009, radio program, ABC Radio National, 18 February, viewed 23
May 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/rn/breakfast/stories/2009/2494178.htm.
In-text referencing examples:
The mothering up process following foaling is vital (Horse breeding: foaling management 1991).
Horse breeding: foaling management (1991) stresses the importance of …
Thesis
Elements of the citation
Author of thesis – surname and initials Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation
marks’, Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution.
Reference list:
Vuthapanich, S 2001, ‘Preharvest practices affecting postharvest quality and mineral composition of
“Hass” avocado fruit’, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, St Lucia.
In-text referencing examples:
… following comparison of the quality of the avocados (Vuthapanich 2001)
Vuthapanich (2001) compared the quality of avocados following …
Personal Communication
Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but
should NOT be included in the list of References.
In-text referencing examples:
The information in the report was later verbally confirmed (P Jones 2007 pers. comm., 15 June).
When interviewed on 15 June 2007, Dr Peter Jones explained that ….
Dr Peter Jones confirmed this by email on 30 June 2007.
November 2017
Maps
Elements of the citation
Issuing body Year of publication, Title of map – italicised, Series (if available), Publisher, Place of
publication.
Reference list:
Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996, Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 Geological Series,
Sheet 8158, Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, Brisbane.
In-text referencing examples:
After viewing the map of Dotswood it was decided… (Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996).
Indirect Citation
An indirect citation is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text; however,
you have not read or accessed the original author’s work. In the list of References provide the details of
the author of the work you have read.
Reference list:
Agrios, GN 2005, Plant pathology, 5th edn, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, Mass.
In-text referencing examples:
Miller (cited in Agrios 2005) found …
… it was found (Miller, cited in Agrios 2005).
Common In-Text Variations
If two or more works by different authors are cited at the same time, separate them with a semicolon.
Example:
The implications for land degradation have been much debated (Malinowski et al. 1995; Thomson 1999).
If two or more works by the same author are cited at the same time, do not repeat the author’s name.
Separate the years of publication by a comma.
Example:
Subsequent investigation confirmed these results (Watson & Clark 1996, 1998).
Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year, have the letters ‘a’, ‘b’, etc. to the year
to distinguish the works. Also add these letters to the year in the list of references at the end of the
essay.
Example:
… ecological requirements of gliding mammals (Goldingay 2000a) however it has been argued they are
effective pollinators (Goldingay 2000b).
Journal articles are sometimes available on databases before they are officially published. In this case
the words ‘in press’ are used instead of the year.
Example:
According to Everson et al. (in press) paying for environmental services …
Setting out your Reference list
Your Reference list should be set out in alphabetical order by author. If no author, use the title of the item.
If the title begins with the, a or an, use the first letter of the second word as a guide to placement within
the alphabetical list.
References
Agrios, GN 2005, Plant pathology, 5th edn, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, Mass.
November 2017
Atlas of living Australia n.d., viewed 23 May 2017, http://www.ala.org.au/.
Australian State of the Environment Committee 2006, Australia state of the environment 2016,
Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra, viewed 23 May 2017,
https://soe.environment.gov.au/download/reports.
Everson, CS, Everson, TM & Van Niekerk, W in press, ‘Soil water competition in a temperate hedgerow
agroforestry system in South Africa’, Agroforestry Systems.
Gaba, S, Gabriel, E, Chadœuf, J Bonneu, F & Bretagnolle, V 2016, ‘Herbicides do not ensure for higher
wheat yield, but eliminate rare plant species’, Nature Scientific Reports, vol. 6, viewed 23 May 2017,
https://www-nature-com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/articles/srep30112.
Goldingay, R 2000a, ‘Further assessment of pollen limitation in the waratah Telopea speciosissima’,
Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 209-14.
Goldingay, R 2000b, ‘Gliding mammals of the world: diversity and ecological requirements’, in R Goldingay
& J Scheibe (eds), Biology of gliding mammals, Filander Verlag, Fürth, Germany, pp. 9–44.
Goldingay, R 2001, ‘Small dasyurid marsupials: are they effective pollinators?’, Australian Journal of
Zoology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 597-606.
Goldingay, R & Newell, D 2000, ‘Experimental rock outcrops reveal continuing habitat disturbance for an
endangered Australian snake’, Conservation Biology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1908-12.
Hawkins, CE, Baars, C, Hesterman, H, Mooney, GJ & Jones, ME 2006, ‘Emerging disease and population
decline of an island endemic, the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii’, Biological Conservation, vol. 131,
no. 2, pp. 307-24.
Horse breeding: foaling management 1991, video recording, Equine Educational Videos, Lochinvar via
Maitland, NSW.
Jackson, SM 2003, Australian mammals: biology and captive management, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Laca, E & Demment, M 1996, ‘Foraging strategies of grazing animals’, in J Hodgson & A Illius (eds), The
ecology and management of grazing systems, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 137-58.
The little green data book 2002, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington.
Newton, AC 2007, Forest ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques, Techniques in ecology and
conservation series, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Pluske, J, Burton, M, Rigby, D & Vercoe, P 2009, ‘Cattle breeding in Northern Australia: revealing how
consumers react to new technologies’, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society 53rd Annual
Conference, Cairns, 10-13 February, Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics, viewed 24 May, 2017,
http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/48167.
Weir, J (ed.) 2012, Country, native title and ecology, ANU Press, Acton, A.C.T., viewed 20 October
2014, http://press.anu.edu.au?p=175041 (ANU E Press).
Ask at the Information Desk in any Branch Library or check the Library’s Web Page ~
https://web.library.uq.edu.au/research-tools-techniques/referencing/referencing-style-guides