Criminology is a wide area of study. One of the most interesting areas of criminology has been juvenile delinquency. This area has attracted intense research because research has shown the link between juvenile delinquency and adulthood criminal behaviors. In juvenile delinquency, one of the major areas of research is the genetic and environmental influence on crime. Rooted in the nurture vs. nature debate, it has been argued that both genetic and environmental factors play a critical role in the childhood conduct disorder and later antisocial behavior. Meier, Slutske, Heath, & Martin (2011) delved into the nurture vs. nature debate exploring the sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on criminal behavior. Through a retrospective study, the authors revealed that there was a qualitative difference in the genetic and environmental influence on juvenile conduct disorders but the differences were not apparent by adulthood.