Scientific experiment, Theories



Competency 114.1.1: Scientific Concepts and Methodologies – The graduate recognizes and analyzes various natural phenomena and applies natural science methods and approaches to these natural phenomena.


Scientific inquiry is a process used to investigate the physical world. The experimental scientific method provides an organized approach for answering testable questions and confirming hypotheses.

Appropriate experimental questions investigate a causal link between the independent and dependent variables. For example, How does the amount of fertilizer affect the growth in height (cm) of plants?

In this task you will use the experimental scientific method to investigate a relevant, testable problem and communicate your findings in an organized written report.


Design and carry out a scientific experiment that investigates a topic from either the life, earth or physical sciences and uses appropriate methods, tools, technologies, and quantitative measurement units.

For a list of possible science experiment topic ideas refer to the “Topic List” attachment.

NOTE: If you wish to conduct an experiment using a living organism, it must be a plant or an invertebrate. No tasks using vertebrate organisms will be accepted.

Complete a written report (suggested length of 4–8 pages) in which you do the following:


A. Complete a project design plan (completed before the investigation is conducted) in which you include and address the following sections:

• Problem statement

• Relevance of your testable question

• Literature review

• Experimental design

• Dependent, independent, and controlled variables

• Threat reduction to internal validity

• Hypothesis

1. In a literature review, summarize information from at least two outside science experiment projects (published works or works by other students) that relate to your topic of inquiry.

2. In an experimental design, do the following:

a. Describe the steps in the experimental procedure.


Note: The level of detail should be such that someone else would be able to reasonably replicate your experiment from your description.


b. Discuss your reasoning for choosing this particular experimental design plan.

c. Explain the sequence of events you will use to collect quantitative data.

d. Describe the tools, technologies, and measurement units that will be used to collect quantitative data.

3. Explain and identify the dependent, independent, and controlled variables for your study.

4. Explain what you will do to reduce the threats to internal validity.

5. In the hypothesis section, state your hypothesis, and explain how you come up with your hypothesis.


B. Explain the process of data collection (completed after the investigation is conducted), including appropriate photographs, tables, or diagrams to clearly show the data collection process.

1. Discuss your use of appropriate methods, tools, and technologies to collect quantitative data.

• Use appropriate measurement units to collect quantitative data.


C. Explain the results of your experiment (completed after the investigation is conducted), including graphical representations (e.g., bar graph, line graph, pie chart, etc.) of the data collected.

• Include appropriate measurement units in the graphical representations.


D. Provide a conclusion derived from your interpretation of the data (completed after the investigation is conducted). Include the following in your conclusion:

1. Discussion of whether your results confirm or refute your hypothesis.

2. Explanation of why experimental design is a key factor in the success of the scientific inquiry.

3. Explanation of how your investigation can be replicated by someone else.

a. Discuss how the replication of an experiment is an evaluation of validity.


E. Include all in-text citations and references in APA format.


Note: Please save word-processing documents as *.rtf (Rich Text Format) files.

Note: When bulleted points are present in the task prompt, the level of detail or support called for in the rubric refers to those bulleted points.

Note: For definitions of terms commonly used in the rubric, see the Rubric Terms web link included in the Evaluation Procedures section.

Note: When using outside sources to support ideas and elements in a paper or project, the submission MUST include APA formatted in-text citations with a corresponding reference list for any direct quotes or paraphrasing. It is not necessary to list sources that were consulted if they have not been quoted or paraphrased in the text of the paper or project.

Note: No more than a combined total of 30% of a submission can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from outside sources, even if cited correctly. For tips on using APA style, please refer to the APA Handout web link included in the APA Guidelines section.


This experiment is carried out with the intent of understanding bases and acids, finding out the different types of soils needed for different crops, creating awareness on contamination and further the study to other botanical projects required and of course the effects that negative and positive ions have on crops (Nardozzi, 2009).

This particular experiment is relevant to botany but it touches a bit on chemistry as well. The pH scale measures how acidic or how basic a substance is.  PH is the acidity or the basicity of a substance.  It is percent hydronium ion in full. The experiment explores ph basics and eventually one learns how pH affects the growth of the bean plant which is a leguminous plant.