Research proposal for Self-efficacy


University level: (in Singapore)

Write a research proposal to design an
experiment to address the corresponding research question:

1. Self-efficacy:
Research question: Does having the mere belief that one is
likely to perform poorly on a specific task lead the individual
to perform poorly on that task but not on other tasks?

Your research proposal should include a literature review of the abovementioned
topic as well as considerable details about why you made the
choices you did regarding your design. Issues you should discuss include the
recruitment of subjects, operationalisation of the independent variable,
operationalization of the dependent variable(s), etc. Describe not only the
decisions you made in designing the experiment but the considerations
underlying those decisions.

Your research proposal should not be more than 1200 words.
How to approach the assignment:
Self‐efficacy as defined by Albert Bandura, is “the belief in one’s capabilities to
organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective
situations.” In other words, self‐efficacy is a person’s belief in his or her ability to
succeed and it can influence how people think, behave, and feel.

This assignment requires you to complete the following tasks:

(1) Literature Review:
You need to conduct a literature review of the above‐mentioned topic by
identifying relevant literature sources and selecting relevant and accessible
references. In view of the time constraint of this assignment, you may conduct
your literature search based on at least three to five references (they must be
published materials like books or academic research papers). Read through the references and
identify some major issues and findings pertaining to the topic.
Summarise or highlight some essential elements (e.g. the research problems,
research methods, major findings, strengths and weaknesses) of these previous
studies related to the topic and provide appropriate review of these studies.

(2) Research Questions and Hypotheses:
Based on the findings from your literature review, formulate a hypothesis to
address the research question of your proposed experiment.
Research question: Does having the mere belief that one is
likely to perform poorly on a specific task lead the individual
to perform poorly on that task but not on other tasks?


(3) Research Methodology
Describe your proposed experiment in detail, including the following.
• Measurement Issues:
Identify the key variables (including independent and dependent variables) and
constructs in your proposed experiment and describe how you intend to
operationalise the constructs. State how you would ensure reliability and validity
of your experiment.

• Sampling Method:
Identify your target population and sampling frame (if any) and suggest an
appropriate sampling method for this study. Justify your choice of sample and
sampling technique(s).
In proposing your specific methodology, be mindful of the associated strengths and


The following book and article would serve as a good starting guide as part of your
literature review:
• For Self-efficacy:
– Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
– Pajares, F. (1996). Self‐efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of
Educational Research, 66(4), 543‐578.
• For Groupthink:
– Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Group decision making: The potential for
groupthink. International Journal of Management, Business, and
Administration, 13(1).
– Craig, T.Y. and Kelly, J.R. (1999). Group cohesiveness and creative
performance. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3(4), 245‐256.



References in APA style.

Document to be submitted in Words 97-2003 .DOC Document type.

Document to be checked by University Plagiarism detector. (no % of plagiarism allowed)

Word count: 1320 words Maximum (excluding references)


Self efficacy refers to the ability of the individual to perform a given task. It is the ability of an individual to organize and execute actions as planned. Self efficacy is affected by different factors   including self confidence in individual ability to complete the given task. Individual belief in their ability to carry out a task contributes to overall self efficacy. This is because it gives motivation and confidence to complete the assigned task. In light of this fact, this study will explore where individual belief on ability to perform a task affect their performance of that specific task compared to other tasks.