THE RESEARCH PAPER:
The assignment after the satire is your research paper. Writing a research paper is a requirement for English 102. I require a bibliography or works cited page. You will write a paper between four and six pages long, approximately 1200-1500 words, using four to six sources. These sources may be of any type, such as Internet, books, magazines, CD-Roms, newspapers, personal interviews, reports, and others that fit your subject matter. No more than 15% of the paper can be from outside sources, either directly quoted or paraphrased! Do NOT have a cover page. Do not break it into sections and have headings for introduction and so forth. It should be one continuous paper with no section headings and no abstracts. There should be no bulleted or unbulleted lists. The entire paper is in prose. If a chart or graph is used, it should be in end notes, not in the body of the paper. Please ask if you are not sure of these instructions as they pertain to your paper. Paragraphing rules from other papers still apply with five sentence minimums in every paragraph and so on. As usual, consult the reference text for help on organization, development, and other information.
It should go without saying that you are not to use a previously written research paper and submit it again for this class.
Examples of the various types of quotation are given in the text, but if you want detailed information of quoting every possible source, consult an MLA handbook, or go to the Internet: http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocMLA.html.
THESIS STATEMENTS and PARAGRAPHING IN A RESEARCH PAPER:
You will never use a quote or a question in your thesis statement or in any of your topic sentences. These must be your ideas, not someone else’s. The idea in a research paper is that you are making a point with a controlling idea that is supported by the research in the body of the paper but NEVER in your thesis or topic sentences!
The rules of paragraphing remain the same in a research paper as they are in any other paper for my class. Every paragraph MUST have a MINIMUM of five sentences. Try to balance them so you don’t have one paragraph that is vastly longer than the others. It makes the others look weak and under-researched. Here, if you have never outlined before, it is a good idea to start. Research papers that haven’t been outlined are pretty easy to spot because too much space is devoted to one section and the other sections are glossed over. If you find that you are saying a great deal about one aspect, maybe you should re-evaluate the topic and spend the whole paper on that one section and develop it. You can definitely have more than five paragraphs in a research paper, but keep to your outline, and be aware of balance as you develop your paper. Don’t be afraid to change your focus as you write and then go back and change your intro if you discover that your paper is going in a different direction than you planned. That’s what revision is all about!
Here is where it is a judgment call. I don’t want to see huge paragraphs all being a quote from someone else. No more than 15% or so of the paper should be quoted. Then, it looks like all you are doing is pasting quotes together. I want it to be mostly YOUR writing with facts, statistics, certain opinions, and so forth quoted to support your statements. You should have, as a ball park figure, I’d say at least two quotes from each source you list, so that would be a minimum of eight to ten quoted citations in your paper that will be documented in your Bibliography.
Example of the citation within the paragraph (there are more in the text):The basic format for MLA in-text citation is as follows:
(Author’s Last Name_Page Number)
i.e. One author claims that &quot;no one is concerned with this issue&quot; (Jones 45).
If the author’s last name appears in the citation, then only a page number is required:
i.e. &quot;Howard Jones argues that ‘no one is concerned with this issue’&quot; (45).
EXAMPLE OF A BIBLIOGRAPHY (Works Cited) ENTRY. (DO NOT NUMBER THEM. THEY ARE IN ALPHA ORDER):When only a single author is listed for a text, typical bibliography entries will appear as follows:
Kasson, John F. Civilizing the Machine: Technology and Republican Values in America 1776-1900. New York: Penguin, 1976.
Martin, Emily. The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.
HOW TO CITE SOURCES AND QUOTATIONS:The following web site is a source of information for you to look up how to do your endnotes and Bibliography pages:
General page on citation of sources:
Bibliography websites. These actually format the Works Cited entries for you. All you do is type in the information, and the site formats it!