In his work, Norcross argues that consuming factor-farmed meat is immoral because it amounts to torture against animals. Norcross beings his argument with a story about Fred who is on trial for torturing puppies because he extracts a hormone from them so he can enjoy eating chocolate. In his defense, Fred argues that although he loves puppies and he brutally mutilated them without any anesthesia because they were just animals. They were the only source of cocoamone hormone which helped him taste chocolate after his godiva gland was damaged in an accident. Regardless of their cuteness, Fred considered puppies to be mere animals, which implies that their life was not as important as human pleasure. It is from this example that Norcross questions the morality of disregarding the life of other animals in order to satisfy human pleasure, which he uses to question the morality of killing animals to eat meat.