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The poverty issue is always present even though it often takes that form of the ‘absent presence,’ as it is a reality that does has always not merited the attention that it deserves. The definition of poverty, how it is talked about and understood speaks a lot about the nature of policy, the shape and political response concerning the issue. Some argue that poverty and inequality are due to social injustice and unfairness. Poor people and the disadvantaged are viewed as vulnerable and require more state support. This is in line with the Marxist viewpoint.  Others however claim that the poor are defiant and they play a big role in contributing to their precarious situation. In this perspective the poor are viewed as a problem or an underclass group that require strict management. They are described in a derogatory and condemning way. They therefore tend to be socially excluded from most issues. In the process, this distances them from the other members of the other members of the society.  The two views are known as the dependency and the exclusion based explanation of the persistence of poverty.