Using the articles attached respond to the questions below
You may use the following internet site as a resource,


1.. Describe the dynamic process of bone remodeling. Be sure to include the role of osteoclasts and osteoblasts.


2. a)4Distinguish between the 2 types of primary osteoporosis. Be sure to include who is affected and the kind of bone that is lost in each.

b) List and briefly discuss 4 risk factors for primary osteoporosis.
Ã¥ c) What are frequent fracture sites associated with osteoporosis? What are some of the consequences of fracture in terms of morbidity & quality of life?

3. 4 Explain the difference between osteoporosis & osteopenia.
What T scores correspond to each condition?

4. Vitamin D
a) Starting with 7-dehydrocholesterol, describe the synthesis of the active form of vitamin D. Be sure to name the intermediate products & to include the organs that are involved.

b) What is considered the biomarker of vitamin D status? According to Hollis, what blood level of this compound should be used to define vitamin D deficiency? What are the current DRIs for vitamin D for adults? What level of vitamin D intake does Hollis suggest may be closer to the real requirement?

5. a) What is the normal level of serum calcium?
b) Discuss the roles of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcitonin in maintenance of serum calcium concentrations. For each hormone, identify sites of origin, target tissues, and physiologic actions. Be sure to distinguish among absorption, resorption, and reabsorption in your discussion.

6. In addition to cancer, isoflavones may play a role in bone health. Briefly describe the mechanism(s) through which isoflavones may affect bone. What are food sources of isoflavones?

7. What are the characteristics of the female athlete triad? Explain the relationship between amenorrhea and bone loss.

8. Discuss the role of exercise in maximizing bone health and preventing osteoporosis. What kind of exercise is needed, and how frequently should the exercise be performed? Who is likely to benefit most from exercise programs?

9. Discuss the roles of sodium & protein in bone health. For each nutrient, indicate:
a) its role in bone health/metabolism (1 pts)
b) recommended intake levels for adults (1 pt)
c) the consequences of high and/or low intakes (depending on the nutrient).

2 Points Extra Credit
Explain the mechanism of the bisphosphonates. List the generic and trade names of one bisphosphonate. What are important nutrition-related side effects associated with these medications? (You can use if you need to).


Bone remodeling is a dynamic process that involves a set of steps. The process incorporates synthesis and destruction of matter that give the bone a mature composition (Mauck and Clarke 669). The process ensures that the calcium level in the body is kept at normal levels. There are large cells that are called osteoclasts whose primary responsibility is to destroy and resorb the bone. These cells then prelease calcium into blood so as to meet the calcium requirements of the body (Nutrition 577). While osteoclasts destroy the bone, another set of cells called osteoblasts embark on the activity of bone development. These cells are charged with the maintenance of the body’s structure. When an individual is still a child both processes take place but the process of bone development out paces the process of bone destruction thereby ensuring the process of growth. The two processes are believed to reach a balance when the skeletal muscle matures. According to Mauck and Clarke (668) Osteoclasts are known to act in the inner region of the bone mainly in the bone marrow.