Topic 1: Mass tourism, Alternative tourism, or Emergence of sustainable tourism
Mass tourism defines a concept where many tourists visit the same place at the same time.
It is often the most popular form of tourism because it is cheap, and it is sold as a package. This is the most popular form of tourism given the fact that most people can afford it. On the other hand, alternative tourism is a more specific form of tourism where people travel for a specified reason. Alternative tourism is more personal and authentic because it encourages deeper interaction ith local environment, people and culture (Weaver 2006). Both forms of tourism have their advantages and disadvantages. While mass tourism comes with economic benefits because high concentration of tourism means more spending and thriving economic activities, it also comes with sustainability challenges because to pressure on environment, facilities, and other aspects. On the other hand, alternative tourism is more sustainable but comes with less economic benefits because it involves few tourists.
Mass tourism can be good to an area because of the economic benefits that comes with increased number of visitors to a given tourist destination (Hardy, Beeton, & Leonie 2002). When more people visit a given destination, they generate more revenues. More visitors spend more on accommodation, food, entry fee, purchases, and others which translates to increase revenues and more employment opportunities for the people. Too general. Any specific example to back up your argument? Any critical points? you need to add how MT can increase positive outcomes and in which context, (e.g. city area and economic benefits), using examples, arguments, critical analysis (e.g when, where, how, why, how long, which levels, etc.)
However, mass tourism comes with sustainability issues. More visitors to one location at the same time put strain on the environment as well as the social life. A good example is the city of Venice and Barcelona. In Venice, the last underwear shop closed more than a decade ago and locals go the mainland to make essential purchases (Colau 2014). In Barcelona, a city of 2 million people, hosted about 7.5 million tourists in 2013 and this has an impact on the local culture (Colau 2014). A sight of naked tourists strolling down the city of Barcelona talks more about the negative impact on the local culture. When Venice and Barcelona sacrifice their culture and environment to host more tourists, there are negative ramifications. Public infrastructure in Barcelona is already under severe strain. In both cities, the neighborhoods are under severe strain from accommodating the large number of tourists. Good example, and you need to summarize key critical points influencing such outcomes
In conclusion, while mass tourism comes with economic benefits, it also has negative consequences especially the severe stain to the environment and social structures. The case of Barcelona and Venice are a good example of how mass tourism can destroy once thriving cities.
Colau, A 2014, Mass tourism can kill a city – just ask Barcelona’s residents. The Guardian, September 1. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/sep/02/mass-tourism-kill-city-barcelona
Hardy, S, Beeton, RS, & Leonie P 2002, ‘Sustainable Tourism: An Overview of the Concept and its Position in Relation to Conceptualisations of Tourism’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 475-496.
Weaver, DB 2006, Sustainable Tourism: Theory and Practice, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 38-57.