Since the turn of 20th century, there have been a lot of pressures from the growing population and human activities like industrialization that have continuously destabilized the world ecosystems. Human expansion has led to destruction of important ecosystems threatening the flora and fauna. The concept of biodiversity hotspot is used to describe the regions which are rich in biodiversity that are threatened to extinction (Kareiva and Marvier, 2003). Currently, it is only a very small percentage of the total area covered by biodiversity hotspots that is under protection. There are thousands of animal and plant species in these biodiversity hotspots that are threatened with extinction. Madagascar and the Indian Ocean islands is one of the biodiversity hotspot that is being threatened by expansion of human activities. Madagascar and the surrounding islands is home to more than 8 plant families, 4 bird families, and 5 primates that are not found anywhere on earth. It is estimated that since human arrived on the island, more than 15 species have been rendered extinct and there is a threat of more species going to extinction as well. This paper will study Madagascar and surrounding Indian Ocean islands.