• Reduced transport intensity of freight

–Increased value; decreased volume and reduced transport cost sensitivity

  • Falling product prices

–Increased competition, reduced prices, increased demand worldwide

  • Deregulation of transport

–Deregulation of transportation, increased competition, wider mode choices, lower prices and cheaper services

  • Transport productivity improvements

–Containerisation, larger ships, increased speeds, greater efficiency, smaller ship and port workforces, optimisation technologies and strategies

  • Emphasis on inventory reduction

–More focused and integrated inventory management, DCs, CCs

  • Changes in company structure

–Less vertically integrated, more specialised, increased outsourcing