Instructions/Procedures with Graphics


Assignment #4: Instructions with Graphics

Write a set of instructions in which you explain to a specific audience how to perform a procedure. Use these guidelines:

1) Fill out the situation analysis for Instructions/Procedures Page 1.
2) Define the audience in terms of its knowledge, background, and need for the instructions. Describe this audience in a paragraph.
3) Make your instructions as clear, readable, and understandable as possible. (\
4) In the introduction to the instructions, make sure you identify or define the procedure that you are going to present; indicate the audience and any special audience requirements; and list the main tasks or phases you’re going to discuss.
5) Carefully define any potentially unfamiliar terms you use in your instructions. Carefully describe any objects that are essential to your instructions.
6) Make sure you use the format for headings and lists that is professional and increases clarity. In particular, use numbered vertical lists as the format for the steps in your instructions whenever possible.
7) Include at least one graphic in this writing project. The graphic should enhance the readers understanding of the instructions. Such graphics as graphs or tables are acceptable. If an illustration of a You may download a picture off the internet.
Instructions can usually be broken down into four parts.
Step-by-step instructions
Title: I would recommend “How to . . .” or “ing” as in “How to Serve Breakfast in Bed,” or “Making Pancakes from Scratch.”
Introduction: Keep it brief. The introduction should situate the reader in the task by answering one or more of the following questions in as few words as possible:
Who should do the task?
When should they do the task?
What will they need to carry out the task?
Why should they do the task?
How long will the task take?
How difficult will the task be?
NOTE: All introductions do not need to answer all these questions. If someone has purchased an item that needs to be assembled, such as a bicycle, they know the “why.” If the instructions you write are for cooking something, you don’t need to write “If you are hungry . . .” in the instructions.
Step-by-step instructions: See below
Conclusion: The main purpose of the conclusion is to explain to the individual following your instructions how they will know they’ve completed the task successfully. Avoid “And now you know how to . . .” However, something as simple as “Drink and enjoy” might be appropriate.
In order to meet the requirements of this assignment, the step-by-step sequence should include at least ten (10) separate steps, in addition to feedback statements and safety warnings. Note that ten (10) separate steps is the minimum number of steps.
• A step clearly and concisely describes one action that will lead to completion of the task. All steps should be numbered and should use the imperative voice, which orders people around. It says, “Do this . . .” or “Don’t do that . . .” without using the word “You.”
• A feedback statement tells the individual being instructed what the result of the step will be (or should be). Feedback statements are the effect that immediately follows the cause of the numbered steps.
• A safety warning indicates a problem that may occur either in the step or the feedback. Safety warnings are usually not numbered, but are preceded by terms such as “Warning” or “Note.”
1) Preheat the oven to 450. Most ovens have an indicator light or bell that will tell you when the oven has reached the correct temperature.
2) Place the frozen pizza on the middle rack. Be careful of the inside surfaces of the oven.
In the example above, “Preheat the oven to 450” and “Place the frozen pizza on the middle rack” are steps. “Most ovens have an indicator light . . .” is a feedback statement. Note the use of “Most” to draw attention to possible exceptions to this feedback statement. “Be careful . . .” is a safety warning. A possible step is missing in these instructions. “Open the oven door” is not included. Someone who can’t figure that out has no business being around a hot oven. Your challenge is to include all necessary tasks and leave out the unnecessary ones.
NOTE: Do not choose a task, such as cooking a frozen pizza, that already has pre-packaged instructions.
Some things to keep in mind:
Instructions should . . .
. . . be in numbered, outline form.
. . . be clear and concise.
. . . be sequential. (That is, follow one another in the order they are performed.)
. . . have all terms clearly defined. (As in the parenthesis in the previous bullet.)
. . . integrate text and graphics. Graphics can include graphs and charts, or illustrations of each step. If you choose to illustrate each step in the instructions, a two-column, vertical format with text in the left-hand column and illustrations in the right hand column.)
DO NOT download pictures off the internet. You may either make your own line-drawings, graphs and charts, or take digital photos. Neither artistic nor photographic expertise will have a bearing on the grade. Appropriateness and usability of the illustrations will be the main consideration.
DO NOT do internet research on your task.
DO NOT get over specific about how you perform the task yourself, assuming that your read has all the resources and knowledge you do. For instance, if you are giving instructions for how to brew a cup of tea, don’t assume that the individual reading your instructions has the same tea pot you do. Don’t even assume your reader has a tea pot. Be prepared to give alternative strategies for heating the water, such as in the microwave.
The best instructions will
• Be brief and to the point; simple, imperative sentences; concise introductions and conclusions. (Note that there is no length requirement for this assignment.)
• Have 10 or more steps.
• Cover all feedback statements and safety warnings.
• Have sufficient and useful graphics. (If you illustrate steps, it will not be necessary to have an illustration for every step. Some illustrations may cover two or three steps. Some steps will not require or simply cannot be illustrated.)
• Give instructions for complex tasks. The examples in the prompt above have been for fairly simple tasks, such as heating a pizza or brewing a cup of tea. You should choose a complex task that demands the best writing from you.


A pancake can be described as thick and flat cake. It is made from different ingredients including flour, milk, egg, and others. Pancakes are prepared using different methods but chief method is frying. Pancakes usually different with the geographical regions and this is based on traditional food practices in those regions. Pancakes are ideal for all types of meals and can be used for breakfast, snack, or in main meal. They are relatively easy to prepare taking not more than 10 minutes. This paper will describe how to make pan cakes from scratch.