Environmental protection in the 21st century is a major concern to many nations, due to the harmful and degrading human or natural activities that happen on a day-to-day basis. The practice of environmental protection involves guarding the natural surroundings on individual, organizational or national levels, for the betterment of the natural environment, animals and humans (Lehman & Geller 2007). Population continues to grow in countries around the globe and technological innovations continue to advance leading to the degradation of the biophysical environment. Environmental protection arises as a result of adverse human engagements such as air pollution, waste production, water pollution, as destruction of biodiversity. There has been creation of awareness on these environmental issues since the 1960s but there has been no consensus on the level of environmental effect of human activity, and criticisms occasionally arise concerning the protection measures adopted. For effective environmental protection to occur, innovative designs have to be formulated and adopted with urgency. This section reviews the literature on past researches on innovative designs of environmental protection.