Ethical Issues in Evaluation and Assessment; Professional Relationships

Introduction
In the course of their work, counselors may be asked to provide some form of assessment or evaluation of a client or student with whom they are working. At times, the counselor may be the person who selects, administers, and interprets standardized tests or assessment instruments to gather information for these types of evaluations. In other cases, the counselor may need to obtain and integrate assessments made by other professionals in order to determine the mental health needs and most effective counseling approach for a client or student. The professional codes of ethics have specific standards relating to the areas of assessment and evaluation; Chapter 11 of the course text addresses many of the legal and ethical issues that may emerge.
Ethical and legal issues may emerge within the professional interactions counselors have with colleagues and other mental health professionals in their schools, agencies, and communities. Employer and employee relationships, consultation practices, and referral policies need to be established within ethical guidelines. Counselors who work in private practices or agencies where insurance policies and managed care plans influence the scope of counseling that can be offered to clients may face legal and ethical dilemmas when conflicts arise between the services their clients need and the services that third-party payers will reimburse. Chapter 12 of the text reviews several types of legal and ethical issues that may arise within the scope of professional relationships and managed care.
Objectives
To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:
1. Identify strategies to address ethical and legal issues with other counseling professionals.
2. Implement strategies to remain current of all revisions and amendments to state laws that regulate and impact credentialing, certification, and licensing of counseling professionals.
3. Implement strategies to research current state laws that regulate and impact credentialing, certification, and licensing of counseling professionals.
4. Articulate how state laws regulate and impact credentialing, certification, and licensing of counseling professionals.
5. Communicate effectively through the consistent use of APA guidelines for grammar, punctuation, and mechanics expected of a counseling professional.

Learning Activities Studies
Readings
Use your Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in Counseling text to complete the following:
• Read Chapter 11, “Evaluation, Testing, and Diagnosis,” pages 272–289.
• Read Chapter 12, “Professional Relationships, Private Practice, and Health Care Plans,” pages 290–318.
Use the Library to read the following articles:
• Braun and Cox’s 2005 article, “Managed Mental Health Care: Intentional Misdiagnosis of Mental Disorders,” Journal of Counseling & Development, volume 83, issue 4, pages 425–433.
• Naugle’s 2009 article, “Counseling and Testing: What Counselors Need to Know about State Laws on Assessment and Testing,” from Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, volume 42, issue 1, pages 31–45.

Multimedia
Click Launch Presentation to view A Colleague’s Dilemma. You will use this presentation to respond to discussion one in this unit.
Read the information on this case and identify your reaction to Ricardo’s approach to counseling and the decisions he’s made in order to provide services to lower-income adolescents and families. Post your comments in this unit’s discussion: “A Colleague’s Dilemma”
Case Study: Ricardo’s Case
Ricardo is a licensed counselor in a large city who works with adolescents and their families. Monday through Thursday Ricardo provides services at an office downtown for clients who have a limited ability to pay for ongoing counseling. Many of the insurance companies used by these clients will not reimburse for family therapy, so Ricardo provides an individual diagnosis for one of the family members, such as “Generalized Anxiety Disorder” or “Adjustment Disorder with Depression,” so the insurance companies will cover the sessions and the clients will only have to come up with the co-payment. Otherwise, they would not be able to receive any counseling at all. For clients without insurance, Ricardo lowers his fee substantially so they can afford their counseling sessions, and often lets clients go without payment because he knows that they really need the help.
Conversely, every Friday afternoon, Ricardo provides services in an upscale section of town from an office that he rents from a friend who is also a licensed therapist. His friend has a full practice and can provide many clients for Ricardo; Ricardo pays her $50.00 for each client that she refers to him. At this site, Ricardo charges an hourly rate of $135, knowing that the clients can easily afford this fee. He administers a battery of tests as a standard intake process for all clients, knowing that the clients’ insurance companies reimburse at a high rate for these assessments.
Ricardo says that the money he makes on Fridays supports his ability to see less fortunate clients.

Assignment 1: 2pages needed with three references. Area of specialization is addiction counseling.
Licensure and Certification
1. For your own specialization area, do professionals need to hold a license, credential, certification, or some other designation to practice independently as a professional counselor? These terms can mean different things in different states. How are they defined in your state? Locate the laws in your state that regulate and impact the credentialing, certification, and/or licensing of counseling professionals working within your specialization area. Describe where you located the laws and include the full reference for the publication or the Web site address.
2. Summarize in your own words three key content areas that are included in your state laws as they relate to professionals in your specialization area. This may include areas such as educational requirements needed for licensure, fieldwork and supervision requirements, specific required licensing and credentialing examinations, continuing education requirements for licensed professionals, grounds for suspension or revocation of a license or certification, and so on.
3. Identify the specific publications or Web sites where pending legislation and updated or revised laws pertaining to licensure and credentialing are published. Describe the steps you will take to remain current of all revisions and amendments to state laws that will impact your own credential, certificate, or license and the work you do as a professional counselor.
Requirements
• Written communication: Develop accurate written communication and thoughts that convey the overall goals of the project and do not detract from the overall message. Your paper should demonstrate graduate-level writing skills.
• References: Your reference list must include at least three sources. You must use proper APA style to list your references. Refer to the APA Style and Formatting section of Online Writing Center for more information.
• Number of pages: The length of your paper should be 2 double-spaced pages. (Note: page count does not include cover page or references.)
• Formatting: Use APA formatting, including the following: correct in-text citations, proper punctuation, double-spacing throughout, proper headings and subheadings, no skipped lines before headings and subheadings, proper paragraph and block indentation, no bolding, and no bullets. Refer to the APA Style and Formatting section of Online Writing Center for more information.

Discussion 1: 1 page needed with two references.
A Colleague’s Dilemma
For this discussion, review the case vignette in the presentation A Colleague’s Dilemma, which you viewed in this unit’s study. Case study below:

Case Study: Ricardo’s Case
Ricardo is a licensed counselor in a large city who works with adolescents and their families. Monday through Thursday Ricardo provides services at an office downtown for clients who have a limited ability to pay for ongoing counseling. Many of the insurance companies used by these clients will not reimburse for family therapy, so Ricardo provides an individual diagnosis for one of the family members, such as “Generalized Anxiety Disorder” or “Adjustment Disorder with Depression,” so the insurance companies will cover the sessions and the clients will only have to come up with the co-payment. Otherwise, they would not be able to receive any counseling at all. For clients without insurance, Ricardo lowers his fee substantially so they can afford their counseling sessions, and often lets clients go without payment because he knows that they really need the help.
Conversely, every Friday afternoon, Ricardo provides services in an upscale section of town from an office that he rents from a friend who is also a licensed therapist. His friend has a full practice and can provide many clients for Ricardo; Ricardo pays her $50.00 for each client that she refers to him. At this site, Ricardo charges an hourly rate of $135, knowing that the clients can easily afford this fee. He administers a battery of tests as a standard intake process for all clients, knowing that the clients’ insurance companies reimburse at a high rate for these assessments.
Ricardo says that the money he makes on Fridays supports his ability to see less fortunate clients.

Discuss your reaction to Ricardo’s approach to counseling and the decisions he has made in order to provide services to lower-income adolescents and families.
1. Identify the key ethical issues in this case, with reference to the ACA Code of Ethics.
2. If you were one of Ricardo’s colleagues, what recommendations might you make to him in terms of the approach he is taking in his counseling practice?
Support your ideas with references to the course text and at least one additional article from a current peer-reviewed journal.

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Ethical Issues in Evaluation and Assessment; Professional Relationships

Ethical Issues in Evaluation and Assessment; Professional Relationships

ANSWER


Introduction
In the course of their work, counselors may be asked to provide some form of assessment or evaluation of a client or student with whom they are working. At times, the counselor may be the person who selects, administers, and interprets standardized tests or assessment instruments to gather information for these types of evaluations. In other cases, the counselor may need to obtain and integrate assessments made by other professionals in order to determine the mental health needs and most effective counseling approach for a client or student. The professional codes of ethics have specific standards relating to the areas of assessment and evaluation; Chapter 11 of the course text addresses many of the legal and ethical issues that may emerge.
Ethical and legal issues may emerge within the professional interactions counselors have with colleagues and other mental health professionals in their schools, agencies, and communities. Employer and employee relationships, consultation practices, and referral policies need to be established within ethical guidelines. Counselors who work in private practices or agencies where insurance policies and managed care plans influence the scope of counseling that can be offered to clients may face legal and ethical dilemmas when conflicts arise between the services their clients need and the services that third-party payers will reimburse. Chapter 12 of the text reviews several types of legal and ethical issues that may arise within the scope of professional relationships and managed care.
Objectives
To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:
1. Identify strategies to address ethical and legal issues with other counseling professionals.
2. Implement strategies to remain current of all revisions and amendments to state laws that regulate and impact credentialing, certification, and licensing of counseling professionals.
3. Implement strategies to research current state laws that regulate and impact credentialing, certification, and licensing of counseling professionals.
4. Articulate how state laws regulate and impact credentialing, certification, and licensing of counseling professionals.
5. Communicate effectively through the consistent use of APA guidelines for grammar, punctuation, and mechanics expected of a counseling professional.

Ethical Issues in Evaluation and Assessment; Professional Relationships

Learning Activities Studies
Readings
Use your Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in Counseling text to complete the following:
• Read Chapter 11, “Evaluation, Testing, and Diagnosis,” pages 272–289.
• Read Chapter 12, “Professional Relationships, Private Practice, and Health Care Plans,” pages 290–318.
Use the Library to read the following articles:
• Braun and Cox’s 2005 article, “Managed Mental Health Care: Intentional Misdiagnosis of Mental Disorders,” Journal of Counseling & Development, volume 83, issue 4, pages 425–433.
• Naugle’s 2009 article, “Counseling and Testing: What Counselors Need to Know about State Laws on Assessment and Testing,” from Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, volume 42, issue 1, pages 31–45.

Multimedia
Click Launch Presentation to view A Colleague’s Dilemma. You will use this presentation to respond to discussion one in this unit.
Read the information on this case and identify your reaction to Ricardo’s approach to counseling and the decisions he’s made in order to provide services to lower-income adolescents and families. Post your comments in this unit’s discussion: “A Colleague’s Dilemma”
Case Study: Ricardo’s Case
Ricardo is a licensed counselor in a large city who works with adolescents and their families. Monday through Thursday Ricardo provides services at an office downtown for clients who have a limited ability to pay for ongoing counseling. Many of the insurance companies used by these clients will not reimburse for family therapy, so Ricardo provides an individual diagnosis for one of the family members, such as “Generalized Anxiety Disorder” or “Adjustment Disorder with Depression,” so the insurance companies will cover the sessions and the clients will only have to come up with the co-payment. Otherwise, they would not be able to receive any counseling at all. For clients without insurance, Ricardo lowers his fee substantially so they can afford their counseling sessions, and often lets clients go without payment because he knows that they really need the help.
Conversely, every Friday afternoon, Ricardo provides services in an upscale section of town from an office that he rents from a friend who is also a licensed therapist. His friend has a full practice and can provide many clients for Ricardo; Ricardo pays her $50.00 for each client that she refers to him. At this site, Ricardo charges an hourly rate of $135, knowing that the clients can easily afford this fee. He administers a battery of tests as a standard intake process for all clients, knowing that the clients’ insurance companies reimburse at a high rate for these assessments.
Ricardo says that the money he makes on Fridays supports his ability to see less fortunate clients.

Assignment 1: 2pages needed with three references. Area of specialization is addiction counseling.
Licensure and Certification
1. For your own specialization area, do professionals need to hold a license, credential, certification, or some other designation to practice independently as a professional counselor? These terms can mean different things in different states. How are they defined in your state? Locate the laws in your state that regulate and impact the credentialing, certification, and/or licensing of counseling professionals working within your specialization area. Describe where you located the laws and include the full reference for the publication or the Web site address.
2. Summarize in your own words three key content areas that are included in your state laws as they relate to professionals in your specialization area. This may include areas such as educational requirements needed for licensure, fieldwork and supervision requirements, specific required licensing and credentialing examinations, continuing education requirements for licensed professionals, grounds for suspension or revocation of a license or certification, and so on.
3. Identify the specific publications or Web sites where pending legislation and updated or revised laws pertaining to licensure and credentialing are published. Describe the steps you will take to remain current of all revisions and amendments to state laws that will impact your own credential, certificate, or license and the work you do as a professional counselor.

Ethical Issues in Evaluation and Assessment; Professional Relationships

Requirements
• Written communication: Develop accurate written communication and thoughts that convey the overall goals of the project and do not detract from the overall message. Your paper should demonstrate graduate-level writing skills.
• References: Your reference list must include at least three sources. You must use proper APA style to list your references. Refer to the APA Style and Formatting section of Online Writing Center for more information.
• Number of pages: The length of your paper should be 2 double-spaced pages. (Note: page count does not include cover page or references.)
• Formatting: Use APA formatting, including the following: correct in-text citations, proper punctuation, double-spacing throughout, proper headings and subheadings, no skipped lines before headings and subheadings, proper paragraph and block indentation, no bolding, and no bullets. Refer to the APA Style and Formatting section of Online Writing Center for more information.

Discussion 1: 1 page needed with two references.
A Colleague’s Dilemma
For this discussion, review the case vignette in the presentation A Colleague’s Dilemma, which you viewed in this unit’s study. Case study below:

Case Study: Ricardo’s Case
Ricardo is a licensed counselor in a large city who works with adolescents and their families. Monday through Thursday Ricardo provides services at an office downtown for clients who have a limited ability to pay for ongoing counseling. Many of the insurance companies used by these clients will not reimburse for family therapy, so Ricardo provides an individual diagnosis for one of the family members, such as “Generalized Anxiety Disorder” or “Adjustment Disorder with Depression,” so the insurance companies will cover the sessions and the clients will only have to come up with the co-payment. Otherwise, they would not be able to receive any counseling at all. For clients without insurance, Ricardo lowers his fee substantially so they can afford their counseling sessions, and often lets clients go without payment because he knows that they really need the help.
Conversely, every Friday afternoon, Ricardo provides services in an upscale section of town from an office that he rents from a friend who is also a licensed therapist. His friend has a full practice and can provide many clients for Ricardo; Ricardo pays her $50.00 for each client that she refers to him. At this site, Ricardo charges an hourly rate of $135, knowing that the clients can easily afford this fee. He administers a battery of tests as a standard intake process for all clients, knowing that the clients’ insurance companies reimburse at a high rate for these assessments.
Ricardo says that the money he makes on Fridays supports his ability to see less fortunate clients.

Discuss your reaction to Ricardo’s approach to counseling and the decisions he has made in order to provide services to lower-income adolescents and families.
1. Identify the key ethical issues in this case, with reference to the ACA Code of Ethics.
2. If you were one of Ricardo’s colleagues, what recommendations might you make to him in terms of the approach he is taking in his counseling practice?
Support your ideas with references to the course text and at least one additional article from a current peer-reviewed journal.