Dryden defines three types of translation: Metaphrase, which is literal and word for word; Paraphrase, which captures the general sense or meaning; and Imitation, which is a more liberal adaptation. He calls the first and last extremes, and claims that the middle way is the way to go. (I would call this the Goldilocks “Just right!” principle). Schleiermacher and many others have continued or come up with similar structures and theories.
1) Pick a short prose piece or fragment in your source language with which you are familiar and that you like (again, no more that 100 words or so). Translate it in all three modalities. Include the original. Then comment on problems and issues that may have arisen during the process. Translate to Spanish because all of this is for a Spanish class.
2) Ask a thoughtful question about the problems of translation (not a rhetorical question, one to which you really don’t know the answer).