Dissertation chapter – Literature review


I need 2 methods –Skillful Questioning & Emphasing Choice please added it in after this introduction plus a conclusion.
Rational emotive theraphy (RET) is a physiotherapeutic approach wich proposes that unrealistic and irrational belief cause many emotional problems. The primary focus of this treatment approach is to suggest changes in thinking that will possibly lead to changes in the behavior. This approach is used to alleviate and /or improve systoms.

The therapy emphasizes irrational thinking patterns that causes emotional distress into thoughts that are more reasonable and rational. RET can be used to treat people affected from disorders such as anxiety, depression, and stress.

Rational Emotive Therapy dates back to the 1950’s. This approach was developed by Albert Ellis. Ellis proposed that peope become unhappy and developed self-deeating habits because of unrealistic and faulty beliefs. Ellis conducted research about the behavior and introduced the model that most irrtional belief originated from three core ideas. Each of which were indicated as irrational and unrealistic. These three cores and unrealistic views includes: I must perform well to be approved by others who are preceived significiant; you must treat me fairly– if not, then it is horrible and I cannot bear it; condition must be my way and if not I cannot stand to live in such a terrible and awful world. As you can se these three core ideas are pretty unrealistic and such irrational thoughts can lead to grief and pointless suffering.

As a therapist RET is active. The RET therapist main goal are to change irrational thinking bt challenging the thought process. The goal is to promote realistic thoughts along with rational self-talk. This process includes disputing irrational thoughts, reframing, problem-solving, role-playing and the use of humor. One example would be disputing irrational thoughts; in this scenario the therapist would point out how irrational it would be for the client to believe he or she had to be good at everything in order to feel worthwhie. This may take some time; however, having the client realize and understand the irrational thought shows sign of progression. In order to provide such therapy, an assessment is required before actual treatment. The assessment contains questions and information that cover areas and information that cover areas such as past medical and psychological history, sex and drug history, employment and education history and criminal history. The interviews provides information for a diagnosis or aa tentative diagnosis that requires further testing or consultation.

http://www.minddisorders.com/PyZ/Rational-emotive therapy.html#1XZZ0VNbtmMWe

Types of Cognitive Behavior Therapy:


There are a number of different approaches to CBT that are regularly used by mental health professionals. These types include:

· Rational Emotive Therapy

· Cognitive Therapy

· Multimodal Therapy

The Components of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

People often experience thoughts or feelings that reinforce or compound faulty beliefs. Such beliefs can result in problematic behaviors that may affect numerous life areas, including family, romantic relationships, work and academics. For example, a person suffering from low self-esteem might experience negative thoughts about his or her own abilities or appearance. As a result of these negative thinking patterns, the individual might start avoiding social situations or pass up on opportunities for advancement at work or at school.

In order to combat these destructive thoughts and behaviors, a cognitive behavior therapist will start by helping the client to identify the problematic beliefs. This stage, known as functional analysis, is important for learning how thoughts, feelings and situations can contribute to maladaptive behaviors. The process can be difficult, especially for patients who struggle with introspection, but it can ultimately lead to self-discovery and insight that are an essential part of the treatment process.

The second part of cognitive behavior therapy focuses on the actual behaviors that are contributing to the problem. The client begins to learn and practice new skills that can then be put into use in real-world situations. For example, a person suffering from drug addiction might start practicing new coping skills and rehearse ways to avoid or deal with social situations that might trigger a relapse.

In most cases, CBT is a gradual process that helps a person make incremental steps towards a behavior change. Someone suffering from social anxiety might start by simply imagining himself in an anxiety-provoking social situation. Next, the client might start practicing conversations with friends, family and acquaintances. By progressively working toward a larger goal, the process seems less daunting and the goal seems easier to achieve.

Uses of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Cognitive behavior therapy has been used to treat people suffering from a wide range of disorders, including anxiety, phobias, depression, addiction and a variety of maladaptive behaviors. CBT is one of the most researched types of therapy, in part because treatment is focused on a highly specific goal and results can be measured relatively easily.

Cognitive behavior therapy is often best suited for clients who are comfortable with introspection. In order for CBT to be effective, the individual must be ready and willing to spend time and effort analyzing his or her thoughts and feelings. Such self-analysis can be difficult, but it is a great way to learn more about how internal states impact outward behavior.

Cognitive behavior therapy is also well-suited for people looking for a short-term treatment options that does not necessarily involve pharmacological medication. One of the greatest benefits of CBT is that it helps clients develop coping skills that can be useful both now and in the future.



Adolescent managing anger in group therapy:

http://www.agpa.org/pubs/3-adolescents.pdf see page 14


Cognitive Behavior Techniques:



This site talks about anger and how to deal with it.


Here is another site for Adolescent and Anger Management:




This site has a lot of information when working with elderly who has small stroke or anything to do with their health. Half way down the article you will find some interesting information:




Rational emotive therapy (RET) is a physiotherapeutic treatment that suggests that many emotional problems are caused by irrational beliefs. The approach was developed in 1950’s by Albert Ellis who proposed that, faulty beliefs and unreality are the major causes of unhappiness and self de-eating habits among people. This was after conducting a research where he came up with three irrational views, with each as an irrational unrealistic. This core views included, u must treat me fairly if not I cannot bear, I must perform well to get the approval of others who are considered important and, any condition must be the way I want it if not, I cannot live with  such an awful and terrible. RET is an active therapist whose main goal is to challenge the thought process in changing irrational thinking. An assessment before the beginning of the therapy is important. This will focus on the background information of the client such as drug history, sex, psychological history, education history, employment and information on criminology, which acts as a base for diagnosis (Mulhauser, 2009).