The aspect of desertification and drought are some of the serious challenges and threats that face sustainable development in Africa. From a simple definition, desertification is a process where by the land degrades in dry sub humid areas, arid, and semi arid areas as a result of different factors like human activities and climatic differences. In this respect there are different ways through which land degradation manifests itself; water scarcity, loss of vegetation cover, poverty, drought, biodiversity, reduced agricultural productivity, and soil erosion. World wide, the concept of environment is considered as a very crucial phenomenon that is distinguished with very responsive balance between its constituents which includes soil, water, and air. The different changes that take place in many parts of the world that alter the constituents of environment have different impacts on it. Desertification usually brings about drought in the land as people are not able to get foods from the farms. In Sahara desert for instance, the residents of this area live in abject poverty as they have to rely on food donation from other parts of the whole world. It should be noted that in the whole world, the area that is covered by dry lands is very large and it is increasing from time to time and hence if this aspect is not addressed as soon as possible, the future of human beings is jeopardized. A study on desertification can play a very sensitive role in ensuring that environmentalists and other policy makers will ensure that deserts are reduced as much as possible through the process of afforestation. Sahara desert which is in Africa occupies a very large area and it is believed by environmentalists that it extends to other areas by seven kilometers each day. This is a good indication that this desert will come to occupy the whole of Africa, some parts of Europe, and Asia if it is not addressed.