According to the Duhaime et al, in the California’s Penal code, Robbery is defined as criminal taking of a property belonging to someone else in the immediate presence of the owner, against the will of the owner and usually accomplished through force or fear.
The actus reus of this crime is that the criminal applies force and the final effect of physical movement of the property from the owner (Duhaime, L. et al.). On the other hand, the mens rea element of this crime can be seen in the agent intentions of causing fear while taking the property (Duhaime et al.)
The force aspect of this crime brings the idea that the owner can be injured in the process of resisting the robber’s efforts in taking away the property. In this regard, it can be seen as an assault with intentions of taking away the property.