|Racial Identity Development Models
In this unit we will be introduced to racial identity development models. Sue and Sue (2013) will highlight the utility of these models in remaining alert to differences within groups, diagnosis and retention of minority clients, and the recognition of sociopolitical influences in our own and our clients’ lives. Models speaking to the identity development of particular groups will be presented, along with a more universal model, the racial/cultural identity development model. In studying these models, we will reflect on the characteristics of stages of identity development and the therapeutic implications of these stages.
Although it may seem odd at first, we will also take time to consider White racial identity development and models, reflecting on the “invisible Whiteness of being” and the dynamics of Whiteness in terms of skin privilege and how Whiteness is not invisible to people of color. We will also consider the heterogeneity among European Americans just as we will with each of the other diverse groups we will study.
As we live in an increasingly diverse world, it is also important that we consider what it means to be of multiracial descent. According to Sue and Sue (2013), for the first time in 2000 the U.S. census permitted people to check more than one box for racial identity, recognizing that many of us do not identify with a single racial identity. We will consider stereotypes about people who identify as multiracial and their experiences of “existing between the margins” (p. 431), and what that may mean in terms of implications for our counseling practice.
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2013). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:
1. Identify the characteristics and concerns of multiracial individuals and families.
2. Summarize contextual and systemic dynamics (gender, age, socioeconomic status, et cetera) that impact counseling.
3. Identify appropriate strategies for resolving conflict and promoting optimal wellness in individual, couple, and/or family counseling.
4. Articulate theories of identity development to inform counseling practices with diverse populations.Learning Activities Studies
Use your textbook, Sue and Sue’s Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, to complete the following:
• Read Chapter 2, “The Superordinate Nature of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy,” pages 47–51.
• Read Chapter 11, “Racial/Cultural Identity Development in People of Color: Therapeutic Implications,” pages 287–311.
• Read Chapter 12, “White Racial Identity Development: Therapeutic Implications,” pages 313–339.
• Read Chapter 18, “Counseling Individuals of Multiracial Descent,” pages 425–438.
Use the Library to complete the following:
• Read Laszloffy’s chapter, “Therapy With Mixed-Race Families,” from the book Re-Visioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical Practice.
• Read Alessandria’s 2002 article, “Acknowledging White Ethnic Groups in Multicultural Counseling,” in The Family Journal, volume 10, issue 1, pages 57–60.
• Optional Readings
The literature is rich with resources to help counselors and therapists delve more deeply into the topics being covered in this course and to pursue their own special interests. Below you will find a reference list compiled by experts in each of the specialization areas at the University; look to these for information and use as you wish in your professional development. Please note that it is acceptable to draw from these resources for your discussions and assignments; however, you should not rely exclusively on these resources in completing assignments that require library research.
• In McGoldrick and Hardy’s Re-visioning Family Therapy, Race, Culture and Gender in Clinical Practice (2nd ed.), read the following:
o Berndt’s chapter, “Legacies of White Privilege,” pages 184–190.
o Dolan-Del Vecchio’s chapter, “Dismantling White Male Privilege Within Family Therapy,” pages 250–260.
Read Arminio’s 2001 article, “Exploring the Nature of Race-Related Guilt,” in Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, volume 29, issue 4, pages 239–252.
Read Choi, Harachi, Gillmore, and Catalano’s 2006 article, “Are Multiracial Adolescents at Greater Risk? Comparisons of Rates, Patterns, and Correlates of Substance Use and Violence Between Monoracial and Multiracial Adolescents,” in American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, volume 76, issue 1, pages 86–97.
Read Leach, Behrens, and LeFleur’s 2002 article, “White Racial Identity and White Racial Consciousness: Similarities, Differences, and Recommendations,” in Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, volume 30, issue 2, pages 66–80.
Read Ndiaye, Hecht, Wagstaff, and Elek’s 2009 article, “Mexican-Heritage Preadolescents’ Ethnic Identification and Perceptions of Substance Use,” in Substance Use, volume 44, issue 8, pages 1160–1182.
Read Neblett, Terzian, and Herriott’s 2010 article, “From Racial Discrimination to Substance Use: The Buffering Effects of Racial Socialization,” in Child Development Perspectives, volume 4, issue 2, pages 131–137.
Read Sakai, Wang, and Price’s 2010 article, “Substance Use and Dependence Among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asian Ethnic Groups in the United States: Contrasting Multiple-Race and Single-Race Prevalence Rates From a National Survey,” in Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, volume 9, issue 3, pages 173–185.
Read Wright, Houston, Ellis, Holloway, and Hudson’s 2003 article, “Crossing Racial Lines: Geographies of Mixed-Race Partnering and Multiraciality in the United States,” in Progress in Human Geography, volume 27, issue 4, pages 457–474.
Carter Case Study: For Discussion Paper!
The Carters are a middle class family who live in a predominantly white area. Mrs. Carter is African American, and Mr. Carter is European American. They are concerned as their son James, a junior in high school and honors student, is adopting music, clothing, and behaviors associated with low-SES African-Americans when they have tried to raise him not to identify with those parts of Black culture. In the past month they have experienced conflict with James who has challenged their expectations. They have also noticed that he has smelled of alcohol when returning home from spending the evening at friend’s house, and just this week they received a call from one of James’ teachers reporting he may fail a class.
Question: Identify and discuss the major issues, themes, needs, and challenges faced by multiracial individuals as presented in the readings of this unit and the Carter Case Study you viewed, and relative to what you learned about racial identity development models. NOTE: 1 page needed with two references. My specialization area is Addiction Counselor
Describe how multiracial individuals are similar to and different from other groups; be sure to address identity development.
Consider the case of the Carters from your specialization area (for example, you are a couples or family counselor working with the Carters, James’ school or career counselor, or the mental health or addictions counselor who James’ parents have told him he had to see).
What bio-psycho-social characteristics or concerns stand out to you as salient in this case and why?
Imagine that you are the counselor—propose three culturally relevant strategies you would use in helping your client to resolve conflicts and to promote optimal wellness and growth in terms of mind, body, and spirit.