Contemporary Models of Addictive and Compulsive Behavior – Describe how an integral model of addiction broadens the traditional conceptualization of addictions and compulsive behavior

Introduction
In the United States, there are two primary perspectives on addiction. The first perspective views excessive drinking and non-prescription drug use as willful behavior controllable by the individual. The second, more recent perspective, views addiction as a disease of the brain that needs treatment (Henningfield, Santora, & Warren, 2007).
Combs (2004) describes addiction as progressive:
As the disease progresses, craving emanating from the old or primitive brain’s reward system creates compulsion despite knowledge that resides in the new brain’s prefrontal cortex that compulsive use leads to adverse consequences. Once the cycle of addiction is started by the first fix, pill, or drink, the reward system, fueled by a mid-brain system… is activated…Addiction then becomes a disease of the brain just as diabetes is a disease of the pancreas (p. 6).
Historically, addiction was viewed from the perspective of traditional medical model which defined addictive behaviors as bad habits leading to organ damage (Martin, Weinberg, & Bealer, 2007). However, in recent years various theories and models of addiction have emerged. In this unit, we will explore the multicausal and biopsychosocial models for understanding the etiology of addiction.
References
Coombs, R. H. (2004). Handbook of addictive disorders: A practical guide to diagnosis and treatment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Henningfield, J. E., Santora, P. B., & Bickel, W. K. (2007). Addiction treatment: Science and policy for the twenty-first century. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Martin, P. R., Weinberg, B. A., & Bealer, B. K. (2007). Healing addiction: An integrated pharmacopsychosocial approach to treatment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Objectives
To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:
1. Examine the key concepts, assumptions, and practices of the syndrome and integral models of addictions and compulsive behavior.
2. Evaluate the strengths and limitations of the syndrome model and the integral model of addictions counseling with diverse populations.
3. Consider issues of crisis and emergency management when utilizing the syndrome model and the integral model of addiction.
4. Describe how contemporary models of addiction broaden the traditional conceptualization of addiction.

Learning Activities
Readings Studies
Complete the following:
• Read Amodia, Cano, and Eliason’s 2005 article, “An Integral Approach to Substance Abuse,” from Journal Of Psychoactive Drugs, volume 37, issue 4, pages 363–371.
• Read Shaffer, LaPlante, LaBrie, Kidman, Donato, and Stanton’s 2004 article, “Toward a Syndrome Model of Addiction: Multiple Expressions, Common Etiology,” from Harvard Review of Psychiatry, volume 12, issue 6, pages 367–374.
• Read Matto’s 2002 article, “Integrating Art Therapy Methodology in Brief Inpatient Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults,” from Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, volume 2, issue 2, pages 69–83.
• Review Blum, Braverman, Holder, Lubar, Monastra, and Miller’s 2000 article, “Reward Deficiency Syndrome: a Biogenetic Model for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Impulsive, Addictive, and Compulsive Behaviors,” from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, volume 32, pages 1–112. This article’s ten sections are linked as follows:
o Table of Contents.
o Section 1: Introduction.
o Section 2: A Biogenetic Variant.
o Section 3: Diagnostic Potential: The Genesis of Alcoholism.
o Section 4: Electrophysiological Aspects of Reward Deficiency Syndrome.
o Section 5: Impulsive, Addictive, and Compulsive Behaviors: Predisposing Factors.
o Section 6: Compulsive and Impulsive Disorders.
o Section 7: Personality Disorders.
o Section 8: Aspects of Treating Reward Deficiency Syndrome Behaviors.
o Section 9: A Look to the Future.

Note: This statement is very important for the writer to comply with:
You must cite current (2000 to present) references in addition to what is already provided in the courseroom. You are required to use proper APA style to cite and reference the sources you use to support your positions. Support your ideas with material from the professional literature.

Assignment 1: 1 page needed with 3 references.
Contemporary Models of Addictive and Compulsive Behavior
Evaluate, compare, and contrast the syndrome model and the integral model of addiction. Evaluate the effectiveness of each approach when used for addiction counseling and support your ideas with material from the professional literature. Be sure to address the following in your response:
• How does each model conceptualize and treat issues of addiction and compulsive behavior?
• What are the strengths and limitations of each model?
• What possible issues of crisis and emergency management might arise when using these models of addiction and compulsive behavior?
• Are there advantages and disadvantages of using each with clients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds (for example, country of origin, ethnicity, religion, disability, age, economic status, professional status, education level, or gender)? Explain your answer, and if any advantages or disadvantages exist, describe them.

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Assignment 2: 1 page needed with 3 references.
Beyond Traditional Conceptualization
Describe how an integral model of addiction broadens the traditional conceptualization of addictions and compulsive behavior. Evaluate the strengths and limitations of this model for treating a wide range of addictive and compulsive behaviors, as well as its use with clients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds (for example, country of origin, ethnicity, religion, disability, age, economic status, professional status, education level, and gender).

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