The history of crime is as old as the history of man. Basically, crime entails the breach or laws or rules that a governing authority refer to as conviction. Despite that the definition of crime is varied among different people, nations and cultures, the basic element of crime is that it goes against prescribed standards. In the contemporary society, crime has been referred to offenses against the state or the public. Despite that human civilization and literacy are continually increasing; people have not been separated from criminal activities. In response to this scenario, governing authorities have established different mechanisms for manipulating human behavior. Various rules and laws have been established by different authorities thus being able to regulate the general behavior of people. In addition, various security and law enforcement agencies have been put in place so as to ensure people abide to the set laws. A good example of these law enforcement agencies is the ATF. ATF is a federal law enforcement agency that is mandated with criminal investigation of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. This paper will explore ATF and the types of crimes they investigate and cover.