Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection


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  1. Introduction – Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection

The environment is today a major social concern because signs show a depressing state of the environment. The evident signs of global warming, like extreme weather, rise in seal level, melting of glaciers, and many others are points to the urgency of finding a lasting solution to the environmental problems facing the word (Ruddiman, 2005). With the evident signs of climate change pointing to a major environmental problem, the main concern is the impact the changing environment will have on survival of different species on earth (Rahmstorf, Cazenave, Church, Hansen, Keeling, Parker & Somerville, 2007).  

Agreements, protocols, and endless global meetings have not found a suitable solution, which means there is a need to find solution in other ways like technology (US NRC, 2008). Therefore, the environment remains a major challenge to the word today, a problem that needs concerted efforts.   The main challenge in finding solution to the environment problems facing the world is focusing on macro-strategies instead of encouraging micro-strategies at individual level (UNFCCC, 2006). One of the strategies that can help create micro-strategies is innovative technologies that can apply at the individual level.  This study explored the innovative designs that mitigate environmental degradation and sustain protection. Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

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4.0 Discussion

The interview method research was effective in this study because it allowed the researcher to use different research method and collect different types of data.  It allowed the research to tackle the phenomena from different dimensions (Brannen, 2005) In addition, the data collection tools were considered appropriate for the study because its content validity was proved.  The questions were right for the type for response expected and they did not close the door for the interviewee to give further information about phenomena. According to Corbin and Strauss (2007) content validity is important in research because it ensures that right data relevant to the content is achieved.

The interview process went as expected and was completed on time. This is one of the important factors of to consider in interview method because some of the participants have a tight schedule and they usually arrange given time for the interview. If the interview goes past the agreed time, the interviewee may not answer all questions which mean it will not be completed (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Therefore, it is important for researchers to always keep time during an interview.  Although the instruments were appropriate for this study, their validity and reliability will proved further during the proposed research. Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

The reliability and validity of the interview as a data collection tool was also established. Reliability refers to the accuracy of abasement or measuring what is supposed to be measured (Baxter & Jack, 2008). The interview in this cased to explore the phenomenon from the interviewees point of view and this was achieved as shown in Table 1.0 for the themes developed. Similar themes evolved from the two interviews which show the high reliability of the interview because it gave results for repeated measures. This means similar results could be achieved even for a third interview. Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

The use of open ended questions in the interview was important because it allowed for further probe of the phenomenon (Bryman, 2006). This could not have been possible if the questions were close ended because this could have limited the ability of the researcher to problem the issue further. It is important to note that the constant comparison method of thematic analysis allows the researcher to continuously inquire about issues as they arise and this is not possible with close ended questions (Baxter & Jack, 2008). Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

Therefore, the study proved that the interview method can be used to explore phenomenon from a personal experience, feeling, and attitudes point of view. Although the interpretation of interview data depends on the personal understanding of what the interview participants say, the closeness of these answers from one interviewee to another shows a high reliability. In addition, achieving the results as expected or collecting the data that was supposed to be collected shows a high validity. However, the limitations of using this method must be considered because it requires time and resources. Without enough time, it is difficult to organize for an interview especially if the interviewers have a busy schedule. Time management is central to effective use to the interview method (Corbin & Strauss, 2007). Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

5.0 Conclusion and Future Work

In conclusion, the pilot study will affect the future research in different ways. First, it has shown that interview is suitable for this type of study and the future studies might prefer this as preferred data collection method. The interview has a high validity and reliability. The interview method should particularly be preferred for future studies where the researchers intend to have an in-depth understanding of the research phenomena from individual views and experiences. Second, it shows that there are important factors that should be considered when using interview as a research method. The interview questions need to have a high content validity and the interview must be done within the agreed time. These are important factors that should be considered in future research that use interview method. Researchers must also be aware of the limitation of the interview method including the need to have more resources and time compared to other methods. This means that in case of limited resource and time, the interview method may not be a preferred research method. Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

6.0 Reference List

Allmark, P., Boote, J., Chambers, E., Clarke, A., McDonnell, A., Thompson, A. & Tod, A.M. (2009) Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: literature review and discussion. Research Ethics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 48-54

Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008) Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers.  The Qualitative Report, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 544-559

Boyatzis, R.E. (1998) Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks, London, & New Delhi: SAGE Publications. Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

Brannen, J. (2005). Mixing Methods: The Entry of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches into the Research Process. International Journal of Social Research Methodology vol. 8:173-184

Bryman, A. (2006) Integrating qualitative and quantitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 97–113

Clark, P.U. et al. (2008) Abrupt Climate Change. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Reston, Virginia, USA: U.S. Geological Survey. pp. 1–7

Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2007) Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Lowenthal, P. R., & Leech, N. (2009). Mixed research and online learning: Strategies for improvement. In T. T. Kidd (Ed.), Online education and adult learning: New frontiers for teaching practices (pp. 202–211). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994) Qualitative data analysis:  An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Rahmstorf, S., Cazenave, A., Church, J. A., Hansen, J. E., Keeling, R. F., Parker, D. E., & Somerville, R. C. J. (2007). Recent Climate Observations Compared to Projections. Science vol. 316, no. 5825, pp. 709–709.

Ruddiman, W.F. (2005). Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Smith, J. B. et al. (2009) Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ‘reasons for concern. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences vol. 106, no. 11, pp. 4133–7. Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

UNFCCC (2006) Technologies for adaptation to climate change. Available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/publications/tech_for_adaptation_06.pdf

US NRC (2008). ‘Understanding and responding to climate change: Highlights of National Academies Reports, 2008 edition, produced by the US National Research Council (US NRC).’ Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy of Sciences.

van Teijlingen, E. R. &Hundley, V.  (2001). The importance of pilot studies. Social research UPDATE, (35). Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.

Appendix

Interview questions

  1. What issues are we facing with the environment?
  2. Why is it difficult to mitigate the environmental challenges we are facing?
  3. Do you think technology provides the solution?
  4. Are you aware of any innovative designs that can mitigate environmental problems?
  5. Would you recommend them? Innovative Designs of Environmental Protection.