- CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION – Does Television Advertising Make a Difference
It is widely recognized that free and independent media is imperative for democracy and society. Despite that media independence can be jeopardized in various ways and directions, the recent studies both academically and in business field have shown that commercial media biases is an important concern (Faraday, Vijayalakshmi, Vasantha, Kanchana & Lawrence 2016). The conflict between the audiences and advertisers regarding the media contents and the target market is the main source of media biases. For instance, the media may prefer that the advertisers do not critically report about their products. Does Television Advertising Make a Difference.
A good example is the issues touching on safety and health issues of people. For instance, advertisement of junk foods among children, alcohol products, and food and drink- related behaviours and attitudes among the adult populations. Communication and promotion form an important part of marketing in any organization. Organizations promote their products and services in the market in order to reach out as many customers as possible and hence increase their revenues (Aleathia 2008). There are various marketing strategies and forms used in the market. Advertising is one form of promotion used by companies and television advertisement is the most used promotional method. Does Television Advertising Make a Difference.
Despite that everything seems to be moving towards the online direction, TV advertisement is still a force to reckon. For instance, more than 90% of households in Australia have digital TVs and on average, Australians spend about three hours in from of a television on a daily basis. There is research suggesting that television advertising is still the most effective form of marketing with more than 14 million Australia’s finest tuned to commercial television programming in 2012 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016). Therefore, television advertisements reach out as many people in Australia as possible. Based on this information therefore, the aim of the study is to explore whether TV advertisements make a difference among the audiences. Does Television Advertising Make a Difference.
Therefore, children are likely to engage in eating behaviours promoted by television commercials. Therefore, this study concludes that television advertising makes a significant different in the behaviours of children. Comparing the eating habits and behaviours of children exposed to television food commercials and those who are not exposed to this environment, there is a significant difference. Sufficient scientific evidence substantiates relationship between television advertising and decision making of the target market. In this case, marketers use television advertising and increased awareness and sales in the market.
Based on the study findings, television advertising influence the consumer behaviours of the target market, therefore, advertisers should be very keen and sensitive to the products marketed to ensure that they do not promote harmful products or behaviours. For instance, marketers and advertisers should avoid having television commercials on unhealthy foods targeting children because children do not critically distinguish marketing techniques and marketing promotion. Additionally, the government should be very much concerned with the products and services advertised through television because they may cause a gradual change in behaviours to the target market. For instance, children and adults may change their behaviours after watching television commercials advertising particular products for a long period of time.
This study was based on systematic literature review alone. However, future studies should be based on secondary and primary research methods to gather relevant and updated information. Despite that this study gathered a wide range of data from various sources, there may be changes in the current world or some populations may not display the identified characteristics. This study was based on qualitative research methods and hence some quantitative information may be left out. Therefore, future studies should focus on mixed research methods to gather relevant and adequate information.
- Implications and limits of Generalizability of Findings
This study reinforces the application of television advertising strategy in marketing to influence the consumer behaviours of the audiences. Despite that there is a strong believe that television advertising will be overtaken by digital advertising following the increased use of the internet by customers and consumers, this study shows that television commercials have strong impact on the consumer decision and buying patterns.
This study has several possible limitations. The main limitation of the study is that it does not quantitatively describe the difference made by television advertising. The above analysis does not enable the researcher make strong generalization on whether television advertising makes a difference.
Aleathia, C. (2008) ‘The effects of television food advertising on childhood obesity.’ Journal of the Nevada Public Health association, 5(1): 11-15.
Anderson, L. & Anderson, B. (2010) ‘Messages about food and eating in preschool television shows and how they may impact the development of eating behaviours in children.’ Early Child Development and Care, 180(10):1323-36.
Arnas, Y. (2006) ‘The effects of television food advertisement on children’s food purchasing requests.’ Pediatrics International, 48: 138-145
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016) ‘Communication campaign.’ Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1
Australian Communications and Media Authority. (2015) ‘Children’s television viewing: Research overview.’ Australian Communications and Media Authority, 2-18
Bridget, K. (2014) Children’s exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: An Asia-Pacific perspective. Sydney: Oxford University press.
Buijzen, M. & Valkenburg, P. (2003) ‘The effects of television advertising on materialism, parent- child conflict, and unhappiness: A review of research.’ Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(2): 437-456
Dixon, H., Scully, M., Wakefield, M., White, V. & Crawford, D. (2007) ‘The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children’s attitudes and preferences.’ Social Science & Medicine, 65(7): 1311-1323
Egan, J. (2007) Marketing communication. London: Prentice Hall
Faraday, M., Vijayalakshmi, S., Vasantha, S., Kanchana, T. & Lawrence, W. (2016) ‘Impact of television food advertising on unhealthy food preferences and eating behaviour among children: A systematic review.’ International Journal of Home Science, 2(1): 167-173
Hare-Bruun, H. et al. (2011) ‘Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: A prospective epidemiological study.’ BMC Public Health, 11(2): 311-320
Haroon, M., Qureshi, T., Zia-ur-Rehman, M. & Nisar, M. (2011) ‘Does the food advertisement on television have the impact on children’s food purchasing behaviour? A study based on Pakistan food advertisement.’ International Journal of Business and Management, 6(1): 283-290
Harris, J. & Bargh, J. (2009) ‘The Relationship between Television Viewing and Unhealthy Eating: Implications for Children and Media Interventions.’ Health Communication, 24(7):660-673.
Helen, D., Maree, S., Melanie, W., White, V. & Crawford, D. (2007) The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children’s food attitudes and preferences. New York: Elsevier.
Huang, L., Mehta, K. & Wong, M. (2012) ‘Television food advertising in Singapore: the nature and extent of children’s exposure.’ Health Promotion International, 27(2):187-96.
Kazmi, S. (2007) Marketing management: Text and cases. New York: Wiley
Keller, K.L. (2003) ‘Brand Synthesis: The Multidimensionality of Consumer Knowledge.’ Journal of Consumer Research, 29: 595-600
Kothari, C. (2004) Research methodology: Methods and techniques (2nd Ed.). London: Sage
Lynch, J. & de Chernatony, L. (2004) ‘The power of emotion: Brand communication in business- to- business markets.’ The Journal of Brand Management, 11(5): 403-419
Marcyk, G., DeMatteo, D. & Festinger, D. (2005) Essentials of research design and methodology. New York: Wiley
Matthews, B. & Ross, L. (2010) Research methods: A practical guide for the social sciences (1st Ed.). New Jersey: Wiley
Mehrizi, M. & Zahedi, S. (2013) ‘Effective marketing strategies on consumer behaviour as a key success factor in e-marketing.’ Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 2(8): 42-53
Mills, S., Tanner, L. & Adams, J. (2013) ‘Systematic literature review of the effects of food and drink advertising on food and drink- related behaviour: Attitudes and beliefs in adult populations.’ Obesity Reviews, 5(1): 1-13
Mitchell, L. & Jolley, J. (2012) Research design explained. London: Cengage Learning
Nazari, M., Hassan, S., Parhizkar, S. & Hassan, M. (2011) ‘Correlations between children’s television advertising exposure and their food preference.’ Journal of Media and Communication Studies, 3(8): 263-268
Nichifor, B. (2014) ‘Theoretical framework of advertising: Some insights.’ Studies and Scientific Researches. Economics Edition, 19: 180-189
O’Shaughnessy, J. (2014) Competitive marketing (RLE marketing): A strategic approach. New Jersey: Sage
Omar, A., Sarif, S. & Shiratuddin, N. (2015) ‘Advertising theories in impulse purchase elements for ITV advertisement.’ Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computing and Informatics, ICOCI 201511-13 August, 2015 Istanbul, Turkey. Universiti Utara Malaysia, 763-770
Powell, L., Szczypka, G., Chaloupka, F. & Braunschweig, C. (2007) ‘Nutritional content of television food advertisements seen by children and adolescents in the United States.’ Pediatrics, 120(3): 12-28
Reisch, L. et al. (2013) ‘Experimental evidence on the impact of food advertising on children’s knowledge about and preferences for healthful food.’ Journal of Obesity, 3(1): 1-13
Riemer, J., Lapan, S. & Quartaroli, M. (2012) Qualitative research: An introduction to methods and designs. London: Wiley
Saunders, N.K., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2012) Research methods for business students. New Jersey: Sage
Schultz, D., Barnes, B. & Schultz, H. (2015) Building customer- brand relationships. New York: Wiley
Zhang, Y. (2015) ‘The impact of brand image on consumer behaviour: A literature review.’ Open Journal of Business and Management, 3(1): 58-62