Strategies to enhance tourist experience: Service Dominant Logic and Co-creation
Indonesian Pilgrims Experience On Hajj And Umrah. In the context of travel and tourism, a fundamental concept is constituted by the aspect of experiences. Two major elements determine tourism experiences; technology use and co-creation. Currently, the tourism and travel industries are increasingly using the modern technology in luring more customers (Crouch & Desforges 2003, p. 179). As indicated earlier in the introduction chapter, inadequate research is conducted on strategies to improve the tourism experience thus this section aims at discussing the importance of technology use and co-creation in the creation of improved tourism experiences. Indonesian Pilgrims Experience On Hajj And Umrah.
Basically, tourists are faced with three kinds of experiences; pre-departure experience, during travel experience, and post travel experience. Addis and Holbrook (2001, p. 50) in their study on “the conceptual link between mass customisation and experiential consumption” asserted that people are motivated to travel to a certain destination through commercial advertisement, seeing pictures, watching movies and through the word of mouth. This motivation makes tourists forego all other activities and make a point of visiting a certain site. The most interesting site that is more motivating and encouraging is picked as the destination (Gretzel, Fesenmaier & O’Leary 2006, p. 10). Indonesian Pilgrims Experience On Hajj And Umrah.
Despite that travel and tourism is heavily influenced by resources like finances on the side of the tourist, there are other aspects that encourage tourists to travel to a certain destination. These factors were explained by Andersson (2007, p. 27) as during travel experience and include situational, individual, personality related, and environmental factors. The level of comfort experienced by travelers encourages them to re-visit the site in future or recommend the site to their friends. Indonesian Pilgrims Experience On Hajj And Umrah.
Tourism companies in Saudi Arabia should have the responsibility of adding value to the religious sites through managing them effectively to enable them offer quality educational and recreational services. The government of the country should tightly guard the sites from physical damages as they offer more satisfactions to the Muslims performing religious rituals at their natural form. Information about the site and about the components of the site should be well managed and distributed to the tourists visiting the site to enable them clearly understand the meaning of their rituals. These tourists would be motivated if they understand the reasons for the rituals and the procedures for conducting them.
6.2.5 To analyze data and compare findings with the existing literature about the latest Hajj and Umrah pilgrims experience
The literature review has critically discussed the pilgrims’ experiences when they visit the holy city for Hajj and Umrah. The researcher has linked this information with the responses given in this study by the respondents. By linking this information, the researcher has indicated that the interviewed Indonesian pilgrims who had previously performed Hajj and Umrah had different experiences depending on their perceptions of the exercise. The literature review indicates that pilgrims’ tourist experiences are shaped by their personality related factors like memory, emotions and perceptions among others.
In the discussion chapter, the researcher has shown a connection between the literature review and the findings of the study. However, this study was limited to the responses of eight interviewees indicating that there was no much diversity. This was a very small sample size thus some relevant information may be omitted. Basically, a large sample size offers adequate information as different respondents have different views about the topic of the study. Additionally, the researcher has been able to achieve all the research objectives and offer conclusions and recommendations for future studies.
In future the researcher should use a larger sample size in order to gather a wide range of information. Additionally, the researcher should use comparison tables in the discussion chapter to compare and contrast the information provided in the literature review with the study findings. By doing this, the reader would be able to identify the differences and similarities of the two set of information. Discussion of the findings by linking them with the literature review should be very critical rather than just analytical.
List of References
Addis, M. & Holbrook, M.B. (2001) ‘On the conceptual link between mass customisation and experiential consumption: An explosion of subjectivity.’ Journal of Consumer Behavior, 1(1): 50-66
Aho, S.K., (2001) ‘Towards a General Theory of Touristic Experiences: Modeling Experience Process in Tourism.’Tourism Review, 56(3/4): 33-37
Anderson, S., Pearo, L. & Widener, S.K. (2008) ‘Drivers of Service Satisfaction: Linking Customer Satisfaction to the Service Concept and Customer Characteristics.’ Journal of Service Research, 10(4): 365-381.
Andersson, T.D. (2007) T’he tourist in the experience economy.’ Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7(1): 46-58.
Beer, T., Fuchs, M., Hopken, W., Rasinger, J., & Werthner, H. (2007) ‘CAIPS: A context-aware information push service in tourism.’ In M. Sigala, L. Mich, and J. Murphy. Information and communication in tourism 2007, (129-140). New York: Springer
Bendapudi, N., & Leone, R. P. (2003) ‘Psychological implications of customer participation in co-production.’ Journal of Marketing, 67(1): 14-28.
Bhattacharya, C. B., & Sen, S. (2003) ‘Consumer-company identification: a framework for understanding consumers’ relationships with companies.’ Journal of Marketing, 67(2): 76-88.
Bitner, M. J., Brown, S. W., & Meuter, M. L. (2000) ‘Technology infusion in service encounters.’ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1): 138-149.
Boswijk, A., Thijssen, T., & Peelen, E. (2007) The experience economy: A new perspective. Amsterdam: Pearson Education
Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008) ‘Progress in information technology and tourism management. 20 years on and 10 years after the internet. The state of e-tourism research.’ Tourism Management, 29(4): 609-623
Caru, A. & Cova, B. (2003) ‘Revisiting consumption experience.’ Marketing Theory, 3(2): 267-286
Chathoth, P., Altinay, L., Harrington, R., Okumus, F., & Chan, E. (2013) ‘Co-production versus co-creation: A process based continuum in the hotel service context.’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32(1): 11-20
Crouch, D. & Desforges, L. (2003) ‘The sensuous in the tourist encounter.’ Sociology, 13(2): 179-201
Friesen, G. (2001) ‘Co-creation: when 1 and 1 make 11.’ Consulting to Management, 12(1): 28–31.
Gretzel, U. & Jamal, T. (2009) ‘Conceptualizing the creative tourist class: Technology, mobility and tourism experiences.’ Tourism Analysis, 14(4): 471-481
Gretzel, U., Fesenmaier, D., & O’Leary, J. (2006) ‘The transformation of consumer behavior.’ In D. Buhalis, & C. Costa. Tourism business frontiers: Consumers, products and industry, (pp. 9-18). Oxford: Elsevier.
Grissemann, U. & Stokburger- Sauer, N. (2012) ‘Customer c-creation of travel services: The role of company support and customer satisfaction with the co-creation performance.’ Tourism Management, 33(2): 1483-1492
Jaworski, B. & Kohli, A.K. (2006) ‘Co-creating the voice of the customer.’ in Lusch, R.F. and Vargo, S.L. Service-dominant Logic of Marketing: Dialog, Debate and Directions, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, New York, NY, pp. 109-17.
Kracht, J., & Wang, Y. (2010) ‘Examining the tourism distribution channel: evolution and transformation.’ International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(5): 736-757.
Law, R., Leung, R., & Buhalis, D. (2009) ‘Information technology applications in hospitality and tourism: A review of publications from 2005-2007.’ Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26(5-6): 559-623
Litvin, S. W., Goldsmith, R. E., & Pan, B. (2008) ‘Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management.’ Tourism Management, 29(3): 458-468.
Lugosi, P. (2013) ‘Mobilizing identity and culture in experience co-creation and venue operation.’ Tourism Management, 40(2): 165-179
Lusch, R.F., Vargo, S.L., & O’Brien, M. (2007) ‘Competing through service: insights from service-dominant logic.’ Journal of Retailing, 83(1): 5–18.
Masuda, T., Gonzalez, R., Kwan, L., & Nisbett, R. E. (2008) ‘Culture and aesthetic preference: Comparing the attention to context of East Asians and European Americans.’ Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34: 1260-1275
Matthing, J., Sandén, B., & Edvardsson, B. (2004) ‘New service development: learning from and with customers.’ International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(5): 479–498.
Morgan, M., Elbe, J., de Esteban, J. (2009) ‘Has the Experience Economy Arrived? The Views of Destination Managers in Three Visitor-dependent Areas.’ International Journal of Tourism Research, 11:201-216
Morgan, M., Lugosi, P. & Ritchie, J. (2010) The tourism and leisure experience: Consumer and managerial perspectives. Bristol: Channel View.
Ottenbacher, M.C., & Harrington, R.J. (2010) ‘Strategies for achieving success for innovative versus incremental new services.’ The Journal of Services Marketing, 24(1), 3–15.
Payne, A.F., Storbacka, K., & Frow, P. (2008) ‘Managing the co-creation of value.’ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1): 83–96.
Ple, L. & Caceres, R. (2010) ‘Not always co-creation: Introducing interactional co-destruction of value in service-dominant logic.’ Journal of Service Marketing, 24(6): 430-437
Prahad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004) The future of competition: co-creating unique value with customers. Boston: Harvard Business School
Prahalad, C. & Ramaswamy, V. (2004a) ‘Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation.’ Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3): 5-13
Prahalad, C.K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004b) The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Ramaswamy, V. & Gouillart, F. (2008) Co-creating strategy with experience co-creation. New York: Sage
Ramaswamy, V. (2009) ‘Co-creation of value – towards an expanded paradigm of value creation.’ Marketing Review, 3(5): 45-61
Ramaswamy, V. (2011) ‘ It’s about human experiences…..And beyond, to co-creation.’ Industrial Marketing Management , 40(2): 195-196
Sandström, S., Edvardsson, B., Kristensson, P. & Magnusson, P. (2008) ‘Value in use through service experience.’ Managing service quality, 18(2): 112-126
Schmallegger, D. & Carson, D. (2008) ‘Blogs in tourism: Changing approaches to information exchange.’ Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14(2): 99-110
Shaw, G., Bailey, A., & Williams, A. (2011) ‘Aspects of service-dominant logic and its implications for tourism management: Examples from the hotel industry.’ Tourism Management, 32(1): 207-214
Stefan, M., Brown, S. W., & Gallan, A. S. (2008) ‘An expanded and strategic view of discontinuous innovations: deploying a service dominant logic perspective.’ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36: 54-66.
Thomke, S., & Von Hippel, E. (2002) ‘Customers as Innovators: A New Way to Create Value.’ Harvard Business Review, April, 74–81.
Vargo, S.L., Maglio, P.P. & Akaka, M.A. (2008) ‘On value and value co-creation: a service systems and service logic perspective.’ European Management Journal, 26: 145-52.
Verhoef, P. C., Reinartz, W. J., & Krafft, M. (2010) ‘Customer engagement as a new perspective in customer management.’ Journal of Service Research, 13(3): 247-252.
Wang, Y., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2004) ‘Towards understanding members’ general participation in and active contribution to an online travel community.’ Tourism Management, 25(6): 709-722.