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Question 1 – Plato and Aristotle
Plato and Aristotle, in many ways used similar theories of knowledge; however, Plato believes that the realm of the Ideal Forms is the only reality behind all the events in the world. In contrast, Aristotle believed that knowledge comes in a series of realities. However, their epistemology can be compared using the Allegory of Cave and the Third Man argument by Plato and Aristotle respectively. Both philosophers used the term form to denote knowledge and reality. In the Plato’s epistemology, the term form denotes ideas which are said to hold the most important type of reality.
Aristotle used the term form to denote man and what he possesses (Preyer & Peter 60). Aristotle stated that knowledge is possessed by man therefore a third form is required in explaining how man and ideas are both man. According to Aristotle, the theory of forms asserts that Oneness comes from One-over-Many. Plato describes this oneness by referring to it as uniqueness and states that each man is unique in terms of ideas. The two epistemologies indicate the role of philosophers in society. Plato states that philosophers are like the freed prisoners who work to enlighten the society. This is similar to Aristotle’s arguments that philosophers are one over many.
The idea of the supernatural must be due to the existence of the supernatural. I therefore highly agree with the sentiments of Descartes that the idea or thought of the existence of God came from the existence of God. Human beings cannot think of something that is non-existence. Descartes asserts that the effect is always smaller than the cause. I agree with this statement because there is no way in which the effects of something can be greater than the cause itself (Miner 23). This therefore explains that if the thoughts of the infinite in the minds of human beings come from them, how the effect (finite human being) could be greater than the cause (infinite being). Therefore, the existence of God is proved by the thoughts of His existence possessed by human beings. Plato and Aristotle.
Miner, Robert. “Truth in the Making: Creative Knowledge in Theology and Philosophy.” London: Prentice Hall, 2013.
Preyer, Gerhard & Peter, Georg. “Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth.” New York: Sage, 2005. Plato and Aristotle.