History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe


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History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe. The period from late 18th century to early 19th century was accompanied by massive changes in perception of Crime in various regions. In England and the Europe at large, the onset of the nineteenth century saw considerable variations in the perception of offenders as new crimes evolved as a result of changing societal trends[1]. As a result, the penal system for these crimes was also subjected to various changes with respect to the revolutionizing society. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

Quite importantly, the changes in the legal system were also facilitated by the changing political and governance systems. For instance, the increase of bureaucracy and liberalism in Europe resulted into reviewing of some penal codes which were previously considered as inhuman[2]. With reference to Foucault and Ignateiff, there exist close correlation between the systems of ruling and the punishment systems in territories. Considering the various revolutions in terms of governance in the early nineteenth century, it is accurate to describe the early nineteenth changes in penal policy as ‘reform’. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

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On this basis the penal changes experienced on the course of 19th century can be considered as being a form of ‘reform’ meant to facilitate productivity of criminals in society; acting as a measure to reclaim them back into the society, but not to doom them. As a result, it is hardly accurate to describe the early nineteenth century changes in penal policy as ‘reform’[26]. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe

In conclusion, a critical examination on how various governance over various times have been exercising penal measures to criminals, it is evident that the on-set of 19th century saw various changes in the punishment systems. Particularly, punishments that were previously meant for torture with less regard on human rights and the interest of the society were replaced with imprisonment where individuals were offered with special opportunities to venture in various trades. In this case, only social deprivation to such criminals is the major focus, leading to upholding of human rights to such individuals. On this basis, describing the nineteenth century changes in penal policy as ‘reform’ can be considered as accurate. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

Bibliography

Beattie Jackson. Crime and the Courts in England, 1660-1800. Oxford: OUP, 1986.

Foucault Michel, ‘The Ethics of the Concern of Self as a Practice of Freedom’, in Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. Essential Works of Foucault 1954 – 1984, edited by Paul     Rabinow, 37-49. London: Penguin, 2000.

Foucault Michel. Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin,            1979.

Gordon Colin, ‘Governmental rationality: an introduction’, in The Foucault Effect. Studies in        Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchill, Colin Gordon and Peter Miller, 1-52.    London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991.

Ignatieff Michael. Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry. Oxford: Princeton University Press,      1993.

Ignatieff Michael. Just Measure of Pain: the Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution 1750-           1850. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

Morris Noel and Rothman Jackson, eds. The Oxford History of the Prison: the Practice of Punishment in Western Society. New York: OUP, 1995.

Phillips Daniel. Crime and Authority in Victorian England. London: Croom Helm, 1977.

Rusche Gregory and Kirchheimer Ouch. Punishment and Social Structure. New York: Columbia UP, 1939.

Sellin Titus, ed., Prisons in Transformation. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972.

Shklar Judith, ‘The Liberalism of Fear’, in Political Thought and Political Thinkers, edited by       Shklar Judith, and Stanley Hoffmann, 3-20. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.


[1] Michel Foucault, ‘The Ethics of the Concern of Self as a Practice of Freedom’, in Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. Essential Works of Foucault 1954 – 1984, edited by Paul            Rabinow (London: Penguin, 2000), 39

[2] Colin Gordon, ‘Governmental rationality: an introduction’, in The Foucault Effect. Studies in Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchill, Colin Gordon and Peter Miller (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991), 31.

[3] Michael Ignatieff, Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry (Oxford: Princeton University Press, 1993), 47. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

[4] Colin Gordon, ‘Governmental rationality: an introduction’, in The Foucault Effect. Studies in Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchill, Colin Gordon and Peter Miller (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991), 31.

[5] Judith Shklar, ‘The Liberalism of Fear’, in Political Thought and Political Thinkers, edited by Shklar Judith, and Stanley Hoffmann (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 7.

[6] Jackson Beattie, Crime and the Courts in England, 1660-1800 (Oxford: OUP, 1986), 62

[7] Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979), 72.

[8] Michael Ignatieff, Just Measure of Pain: the Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989), 132. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

[9] Michel Foucault, ‘The Ethics of the Concern of Self as a Practice of Freedom’, in Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. Essential Works of Foucault 1954 – 1984, edited by Paul            Rabinow (London: Penguin, 2000), 42.

[10] Jackson Rothman and Noel Morris, eds., The Oxford History of the Prison: the Practice of Punishment in Western Society (New York: OUP, 1995), 95.

[11] Daniel Philips, Crime and Authority in Victorian England (London: Croom Helm, 1977), 94.

[12] Titus Sellin, ed. Prisons in Transformation (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972), 47. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

[13] Michael Ignatieff, Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry (Oxford: Princeton University Press, 1993), 49

[14] Gregory Rusche and Ouch Kirchheimer, Punishment and Social Structure (New York: Columbia UP, 1939), 61.

[15] Michael Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal: Culture, Law, and Policy in England,
1830-1914
(Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990), 100

[16] Michael Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal: Culture, Law, and Policy in England,1830-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990), 101. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

[17] Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979), 75

[18] Daniel Philips, Crime and Authority in Victorian England (London: Croom Helm, 1977), 102.

[19] Michel Foucault, ‘The Ethics of the Concern of Self as a Practice of Freedom’, in Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. Essential Works of Foucault 1954 – 1984, edited by Paul            Rabinow (London: Penguin, 2000), 45

[20] Gregory Rusche and Ouch Kirchheimer, Punishment and Social Structure (New York: Columbia UP, 1939), 73.

[21] Jackson Rothman and Noel Morris, eds., The Oxford History of the Prison: the Practice of Punishment in Western Society (New York: OUP, 1995), 97. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.

[22] Michael Ignatieff, Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry (Oxford: Princeton University Press,    1993), 52.

[23] Titus Sellin, ed. Prisons in Transformation (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972), 61

[24] Michael Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal: Culture, Law, and Policy in England, 1830-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990), 112

[25] Michael Ignatieff, Just Measure of Pain: the Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1989), 134.

[26] Colin Gordon, ‘Governmental rationality: an introduction’, in The Foucault Effect. Studies in Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchill, Colin Gordon and Peter Miller (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991), 37. History of Crime and Punishment in England and Europe.