Take Test: Test 2 –
Top of Form
This test has a time limit of 1 hour and 30
minutes.This test will save and be submitted automatically when the time
Warnings appear when half the time, 5 minutes, 1 minute, and 30 seconds remain.
|Multiple Attempts||Not allowed. This Test can only be taken once.|
|Force Completion||Once started, this test must be completed in one sitting. Do not leave the test before clicking Save and Submit.|
01 minute, 21 seconds.
Question Completion Status:
- Henry’s 75-year-old grandfather, Tim, has a passion for technology. He can operate Henry’s new smartphone with ease. While growing up, Tim had no exposure to technology. However, because of his interest in cell phones, Tim keeps himself updated with new technology through advertisements on TV. He also takes the effort to visit the sites mentioned in the advertisements to gather further information. Which of the following message receiver characteristics is best illustrated by Tim’s reaction to the advertisements promoting cell phones?
- _____ is the process of grouping stimuli by meaning so that multiple stimuli can become one memory unit.
- A _____is the mental path by which some thought becomes active.
- _____ is a schema representing an event.
|c.||A social stereotype|
- _____ refers to the interpretation or understanding a consumer develops about some attended stimulus based on the way meaning is assigned.
- The psychological process through which knowledge is recorded and stored is known as _____.
- Sara sees a beautiful golden dress in a store. However, she feels that the golden dress is expensive and does not even check the price though the sign next to it says “affordable elegance.” Which of the following theories would best account for Sara’s comprehension of the dress as expensive?
|a.||Multiple store theory|
- A(n) _____ is the cognitive representation that gives a specific type of person meaning.
- Which of the following statements is true of workbench memory?
|a.||It has limited capacity.|
|b.||It is considered to be preattentive.|
|c.||It uses semantic coding to store information.|
|d.||It has unlimited duration.|
- A _____ is a small piece of coded data that helps to retrieve a particular piece of knowledge onto workbench memory.
- Fred and his wife are celebrating their 20th wedding anniversary. Fred still remembers the night he asked his wife to marry him. He remembers details such as the look on her face, the good food, and the music that was playing. In the given scenario, Fred’s memory of the night is an example of _____.
- Which of the following statements is true of the characteristics of a message receiver?
|a.||Left brain–dominant consumers tend to be visual processors, often favoring images over verbal communication.|
|b.||High levels of familiarity always increase consumer comprehension as consumers are more inclined toward the familiar.|
|c.||Consumers’ beliefs of what will happen in a future situation have an impact on their comprehension of the environment.|
|d.||Less-intelligent consumers tend to comprehend messages more accurately than intelligent consumers as they put in more effort in the comprehension process.|
- Which of the following is an example of haptic perception?
|a.||A consumer enjoying the ambience at a store|
|b.||A consumer listening to a newly released song|
|c.||A consumer touching a new brand of bath towels|
|d.||A consumer smelling a perfume at a store|
- _____ is the storage area in the memory system where information is stored and encoded for placement in long-term memory and eventually retrieved for future use.
- _____ provides a consumer with the deepest comprehension and greatest chance of accurate recall.
- When a consumer becomes violent with employees and/or tries to vandalize a business in response to an unsatisfactory experience, it is referred to as _____.
- A healthy relationship between a consumer and a marketer:
|a.||encourages switching as routine purchases become boring.|
|b.||increases the selling effort required by the marketer to keep the consumer.|
|c.||makes the decision-making process simpler for the consumer.|
|d.||generates inertia in consumers.|
- Which of the following types of switching costs involves lost time and effort?
|a.||Relational switching cots|
|b.||Procedural switching costs|
|c.||Emotional switching costs|
|d.||Financial switching costs|
- Identify a true statement about loyalty programs in the United States.
|a.||They more often work by offering on-the-spot discounts.|
|b.||They seem to work better when the reward is offered in the future.|
|c.||They work best on consumers who are bargain shoppers.|
|d.||They work best on consumers with a strong economic orientation.|
- Which of the following is true of preferred customer perks?
|a.||The customers receiving these perks are disproportionately profitable for the company.|
|b.||Giving away these perks is not particularly profitable for the company in the long run.|
|c.||The customers receiving these perks do not talk about them lest other customers get angry.|
|d.||Companies are usually quite indiscreet in providing these perks in order to attract more customers.|
- Which of the following occurs when consumers spread information from one to another about favorable consumption experiences?
- Alice has always used Hablar cell phones. She is very comfortable with the user interface of Hablar phones. Even though she would like to buy a smartphone of a different brand, she is reluctant to get one because of the effort and time it would take for her to get acquainted with a different user interface. In the context of switching behavior, Alice is primarily worried about _____.
|a.||relational switching costs|
|b.||financial switching costs|
|c.||transactional switching costs|
|d.||procedural switching costs|
- Holly was so pleased with the service she received at the new spa in her neighborhood that she told many of her friends about her pleasant experience. Which of the following post-consumption behaviors best describes Holly’s behavior?
- Elaine’s computer printer broke down shortly after she purchased it. When she called the toll-free service number, she was told that she had to pay to speak to a service representative. It made her so unhappy that she told her friends and family about the problems she faced and advised them against buying that brand. Elaine’s behavior in the given scenario best exemplifies _____.
|a.||a retributive measure|
- Which of the following statements is true of complaining behavior?
|a.||Negative avoidance emotions like disgust are most likely to precede complaining behavior.|
|b.||Negative approach emotions like anger are most likely to precede complaining behavior.|
|c.||Consumers from individualist cultures are less likely to complain than consumers from collectivist cultures.|
|d.||Consumers who are more price sensitive are less likely to complain than consumers who are less price sensitive.|
- Which of the following is true of loyalty cards or programs?
|a.||They are most likely to change the loyalty of consumers with a strong economic orientation.|
|b.||They can be used to learn more about customer groups’ shopping patterns.|
|c.||They cannot tell much about customer groups’ demographics.|
|d.||They do not work in a two-tiered pricing system.|
- Which of the following statements is true of true customer loyalty?
|a.||It can be generated by creating high switching costs.|
|b.||It is not affected even if the loyalty is not returned by the marketer.|
|c.||It exists when a consumer habitually buys a product without any particular preference for it.|
|d.||It involves the feeling of attachment between a firm and its customer.|
- Matt is unhappy with the Luisteren music player that he bought recently. He mentions it to his friend Christine and suggests that she consider other brands. In the given scenario, Matt’s behavior illustrates _____.
- Which of the following occurs when a consumer actively seeks out someone to share an opinion with regarding a negative consumption event?
- _____ are the costs associated with changing from one choice, such as a brand, retailer, or service provider, to another.
- The statement “I always buy that brand” is an example of the _____ component of attitude.
- According to balance theory, the relations between the observer (consumer) and the other elements in a system are referred to as _____.
- Which of the following is the formula for predicting attitudes using the attitude-toward-the-object (ATO) model?
- Percy, a professional nature photographer, wants to buy a camera. When he comes across an ad for a camera in a magazine, he carefully considers and evaluates the various attributes of the camera. He also weighs its advantages against the price and assesses its usability under inclement weather conditions. In the given scenario, Percy is focusing on _____.
- According to the ABC approach to attitudes, the three components of attitudes are _____.
|a.||ability, behavior, and consciousness|
|b.||analysis, balance, and capabilities|
|c.||ability, belief, and cognitions|
|d.||affect, behavior, and cognitions|
- In the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), nonproduct-related information presented in a message is referred to as _____.
- William is planning a vacation. He wants travel packages that provide accommodation and sightseeing. He finds two packages—X and Y—that meet these criteria. On a ten-point scale, he gives package X belief ratings of 8 and 7, respectively, and package Y belief ratings of 9 and 5, respectively. Next, he gives these criteria evaluative ratings of 3 and 2, respectively. Finally, he calculates the overall attitude using the attitude-toward-the-object (ATO) model and chooses package X over package Y based on the score. The overall attitude score (Ao) of package X calculated using the ATO model is _____.
- If B = behavior, BI = behavioral intention, = attitude toward performing the behavior, SN = subjective norm, and w1, w2 = empirical weights, the formula for behavioral intentions model is _____.
- The ego-defensive function of attitudes allows consumers to choose products that:
|a.||protect their self-image.|
|b.||minimize punishment and maximize rewards.|
|c.||express their values.|
|d.||are familiar to them.|
- Which of the following is true of message construction?
|a.||If marketers are attempting to reach a highly involved audience, important information should be placed later in the message.|
|b.||Directly comparing one brand against specific competitors can be effective, especially when the brand being promoted is not already the market leader.|
|c.||Consumers with low involvement are more motivated to attend to a larger number of arguments than are highly involved consumers.|
|d.||Advertisements that allow consumers to arrive at their own conclusions tend to be more persuasive when the audience has a low level of involvement with the product.|
- The ego-defensive function of attitudes:
|a.||makes consumers vulnerable to information that may be threatening.|
|b.||works as a protection mechanism for consumers.|
|c.||allows consumers to simplify decision-making processes.|
|d.||is based on the concept of reward and punishment.|
- Which of the following terms refers to specific attempts to change attitudes?
- In balance theory, the object-person relation is referred to as a _____.
- The value-expressive function of attitudes:
|a.||enables consumers to avoid facts or defend themselves from threatening information.|
|b.||enables consumers to convey their values, self-concept, and beliefs to others.|
|c.||allows consumers to develop positive attitudes toward products that enhance their self-image.|
|d.||allows consumers to simplify their decision-making processes.|
- Which of the following is true of the effects of the source of a message on consumer attitudes?
|a.||Consumers with high involvement are not affected by the credibility of the source of a message.|
|b.||The credibility of the source of a message does not have any impact on the certainty with which consumer attitudes are held.|
|c.||The persuasive effect of source credibility tends to be highest when consumers lack the motivation to expend effort attending to the details of an ad.|
|d.||The persuasive effect of source likeability is more on consumers with a high need for cognition than on those with a low degree of this trait.|
- Gayard Ballet, a ballet group, has both experienced and inexperienced dancers. New members often emulate the attitudes and behaviors of the experienced members as they consider them their role models. This strengthens the bond between the group members. The given scenario illustrates _____.
- Fred is a 45-year-old man. He has an analog television without a satellite connection. His savings are low. Therefore, he does not wish to switch to a digital television until the old one breaks down. Which of the following adopter categories best describes Fred?
|a.||The early majority|
- The stress an individual feels to behave in accordance with group expectations is known as _____.
- Carbund is a professional medical fraternity. Individuals have to meet certain criteria to become a member of the group. The national association outlines the activities that the members are expected to perform. Given the information, Carbund is an example of a(n) _____.
- Which of the following reference group influences is related to referent power?
|b.||Dissociative group influence|
- Young adults, aged 18 to 34, who graduate from college and move back home with their parents are referred to as _____.
|b.||the sandwich generation|
|c.||the early majority|
- _____ occurs when marketers attempt to accelerate conversations about their products or services in existing customer circles, or when they develop entirely new forums like blogs or web pages to do the same.
- Ruth keeps account of her family’s expenses. She keeps track of the entire family’s needs and discusses with other family members about what products need to be bought. She realizes that the family requires a bigger refrigerator and discusses this with her parents. She collects information about refrigerators from various brands so that her parents can make an informed decision. In the given scenario, Ruth plays the role of the _____ in the household purchase process.
- _____ is a marketing tactic that involves using fake identities in online discussions to promote a product.
- Barrum Owners is a group that consists of people who own Barrum motorbikes. The members of the group meet every month for members-only rides and other events. The group also has online forums where the members hold discussions. Given the information, Barrum Owners is an example of a(n) _____.
- A consumer who is hired by another to provide input into a purchase decision is known as a(n) _____.
- In the context of social power, for _____ to work, it is necessary that the desirability of the benefit being offered is high.
- Jen makes handmade soaps and sells them at farmers’ markets every Sunday. She wants her business to grow, so her husband decides to help her. They start a website to showcase the soaps. Jen’s husband also praises her products using a fake identity on various online forums. In the given scenario, Jen’s husband is using the tactic of _____.
- When applying for admission to various colleges, Meg considers Corter State University her first choice. She does this because her parents hold this institution in high regard. The given scenario illustrates the influence of a(n) _____.
- Every morning, Kelly goes for a walk in a park near her apartment. She is acquainted with some of the regular walkers in the park. She greets them whenever they meet and sometimes goes for breakfast with them to a nearby diner. This group is an example of a(n) _____.
- Miranda has bought an expensive pair of exquisite pearl earrings to gift her mother on Mother’s Day. Her mother is quite selective about the jewelry she wears. Miranda feels that she has found the perfect pair for her mother and is hopeful that her mother will like them. Miranda’s hopefulness is an example of _____.
- Which of the following is true of aesthetic labor?
|a.||It helps induce impulse buying through attractive product display.|
|b.||It helps manage the emotions of customers.|
|c.||It refers to the spatial layout of a business environment.|
|d.||It is something that employees perform to enhance their confidence.|
- Susan has an extensive collection of dolls from all over the world. She has had this interest from a very long time and finds it personally gratifying whenever she adds to her collection. Which of the following exemplifies Susan’s interest in dolls?
- Which of the following is true in the context of consumer emotions?
|a.||Appraisals do not involve conflicting behavioral responses.|
|b.||Actions bring value to a consumer to the extent that desirable emotional states can be created.|
|c.||Marketers like to create appraisals leading to emotions that evoke avoidance behaviors in consumers.|
|d.||Emotions do not influence how marketing messages are processed.|
- Jason is buying a new car. He does not know much about automobiles. However, because of the high price of the car, he gets involved in the shopping process by visiting showrooms, searching for information on the Internet, and looking at other sources of information. Which type of involvement does the given scenario represent?
- Holly is a flight attendant for an international airline. Sometimes, despite being tired and grumpy, she needs to stay cheerful and friendly on her job. Being a flight attendant requires her to not give vent to her emotions. Holly’s efforts at managing her emotions are an example of _____.
- _____ are memories of previous meaningful events in one’s life.
- Ed used to buy his clothing from affordable fashion retail chain stores. He recently got promoted at work, and now he prefers to shop at premium men’s clothing stores that sell exclusive designs. In this scenario, the change in Ed’s buying behavior is driven by _____.
- Whenever Robert watches an ad for a charitable cause, he feels moved. He feels that he should do his share to help that cause and donates to the charity. This is an example of _____.
- Susan, a single parent, is very close to her friends and relatives. She tries to visit her parents and grandparents frequently as that makes her feel that she is a vital part of her extended family. In the context of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the given scenario reflects Susan’s _____.
|b.||need for belongingness|
|d.||need for self-actualization|
- _____ refers to the fact that consumers feel uneasy about buying things that others have previously touched.
- Rochelle Cosmetics launches a television commercial featuring a popular actress for its new line of lip colors. Bianca, who usually buys cosmetics of another brand, is quite excited to see her favorite actress as the brand ambassador of Rochelle Cosmetics. She immediately places an online order for two shades of lip color and also talks her friend into trying them out. In this scenario, Bianca is exhibiting a high degree of _____.
- Kyra is so engrossed in window shopping that she does not realize that it is way past eight in the night, and she needs to head home now. In the context of emotional behavior, Kyra’s engrossment in window shopping exemplifies _____.
|b.||a state of flow|
|c.||an emotional contagion|
- In the sense that utilitarian motivation helps a consumer maintain his or her state, these motivations work much like _____.
- Harry spends his weekends visiting automobile stores and going for test drives. He enjoys trying out new cars though he is not looking to buy a car. Harry’s behavior is most likely driven by _____.
- Which of the following elements in the attribution theory refers to the likelihood that an event will occur again in the future?
- Which of the following is true of cognitive dissonance?
|a.||It occurs when customers make a decision that involves risk.|
|b.||It occurs when consumers have high self-confidence.|
|c.||It occurs with unimportant decisions that are easy to reverse.|
|d.||It occurs when customers’ thoughts are consistent with preconceived notions.|
- Identify a true statement about consumer dissatisfaction.
|a.||It is an effect of low involvement and high expectation.|
|b.||It is a negative consumption outcome.|
|c.||It results in positive disconfirmation.|
|d.||It can lead to specific emotions like delight.|
- Jane purchases a new laptop. She believes that the laptop’s battery will be long-lasting and that it is worth the price she paid. In this case, Jane’s belief is a reflection of her _____ of the event.
- Which of the following affects consumption outcomes prior to consumption?
- Edward plans to buy a used car and contacts his friend who owns a used car dealership. Edward anticipates that his friend will offer him the best deal and hence, does not consider other options. In this scenario, Edward’s anticipation is an example of a(n) _____.
- _____ states that consumers are motivated to act in accordance with their attitudes and behaviors.
- Which of the following elements in the attribution theory refers to the judgments of who is responsible for an event?
- Anaya decides to purchase a convertible from Jupiter Cars and tells her friend, James, about it. James cautions Anaya because his experience with Jupiter Cars had been unpleasant. Anaya still places an order with Jupiter Cars because the offer was appealing. However, Anaya is worried about the quality of the convertible and Jupiter Cars’ customer service. In this case, which of the following types of expectation does Anaya demonstrate?
- Which of the following is a difference between durable and nondurable goods?
|a.||Unlike durable goods, nondurable goods do not include consumptions such as services and experiences.|
|b.||Unlike durable goods, nondurable goods are expensive.|
|c.||Unlike durable goods, nondurable goods are long-lasting.|
|d.||Unlike durable goods, nondurable goods do not pose major problems if they do not perform well.|
- Which of the following is true of consumer satisfaction?
|a.||It results from affective rather than cognitive processes.|
|b.||It is a post-consumption phenomenon.|
|c.||It creates strong behavioral motivations.|
|d.||It is often the result of cognitive dissonance.|
- When Eleanor went to Letty’s department store, she noticed that the price that rang up when she was billing was much higher than the price advertised on the shelf. This was the third time she experienced such a price difference at the store. While she did not stop frequenting Letty’s as it was closest to her house, she started becoming wary and looking out for a price difference in the bill each time she shopped there. In this scenario, which of the following elements in the attribution theory corresponds best with Eleanor’s wariness?
- Which of the following is an example of a durable good?
|a.||A seed stock|
|b.||A facial cream|
|c.||A dining table|
|d.||A coffee mug|
- Which of the following defines consumption?
|a.||It is the degree to which something seems genuine and part of history.|
|b.||It is the process that converts time, goods, ideas, or services into value for customers.|
|c.||It is the number of times a product or service is consumed in a given time period.|
|d.||It is the tendency for expectations to guide performance perceptions.|
- Denise expects her incentive to be more than her co-workers as she has achieved more sales than her colleagues. In this scenario, Denise’s expectation is an example of a(n) _____.
Click Save and Submit to save and submit. Click Save All Answers to save all answers.
Bottom of Form