1. Which of the following includes all the others?
A) atom B) cell C) organism D) ecosystem
2. In science, a hypothesis must be A) testable B) a known fact
C) able to be proven absolutely true D) derived from a theory
3. A chlorine atom has 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons. The atomic number of
chlorine is A) 8 B) 17 C) 35 D) 52
4. If you place the probe of a pH meter in an unknown liquid and it reads
pH 1, the liquid is A) an acid B) neutral C) a base
5. This polysaccharide forms fibers that are a major component of plant cell walls:
A) glucose B) cellulose C) starch D) glycogen
6. Glycerol is a building block of A) starch B) enzymes C) vegetable oil D) DNA
7. Which of these types of molecules contain nitrogen?
A) proteins B) phospholipids C) polysaccharides
8. Prokaryotic cells, with no nucleus or membranous organelles, are found in
A) animals B) bacteria C) fungi D) plants
9. If the concentration of glucose in the water outside of a cell is lower than the
concentration inside, A) water will tend to leave the cell by osmosis B) water will
tend to enter the cell by osmosis C) glucose will tend to leave the cell by osmosis D) glucose will tend to enter the cell by osmosis
10. What happens if a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution?
A) the cell will shrink B) the cell will swell and may burst
C) the cell will remain the same size
11. The plasma membrane consists of A) a single layer of phospholipid molecules
B) a double layer of phospholipid molecules in which proteins are embedded
C) several layers of protein and carbohydrate molecules
D) a triple layer of phospholipids and carbohydrates
12. Which of these does not have to be present for photosynthesis to occur?
A) water B) carbon dioxide C) glucose D) chlorophyll
13. The oxygen in our atmosphere is produced by A) photosynthesis
B) cellular respiration C) greenhouse effect D) volcanic eruptions
14. Yeast cells break down glucose anaerobically into
A) ethanol and CO2 B) lactic acid and CO2
C) lactic acid and H2O D) ethanol and H2O
15. The net energy gain from complete cellular respiration is
A) 2 ATP B) 4 ATP C) 8 ATP D) 36-38 ATP
16. Carbon dioxide is released in A) the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis
B) the Calvin cycle C) glycolysis D) the Krebs cycle
17. Which of the following is not a characteristic of enzymes? A) they are proteins
B) they speed up the rate of chemical reactions C) they act on specific substances called
substrates D) they are used up in each reaction, thus need to be produced in large quantities
18. Each new cell produced by this process will have an identical copy of all
chromosomes and genes possessed by the parent cell: A) meiosis B) mitosis
19. During the first division of meiosis, A) homologous chromosomes separate
B) chromosomes separate at the centromere C) chromosomes become triploid
20. The number of chromosomes in a human sperm cell is A) 4 B) 8 C) 23 D) 46
21. Exchange of genes between maternal and paternal chromosomes before the first
division of meiosis is caused by
A) crossing over B) X-linkage C) cytokinesis D) replication
22. If a heterozygous male mates with an albino female, what percentage of albino
children would be expected? A) 0% B) 25% C) 50% D) 75% E) 100%
23. Queen Victoria’s son Leopold had hemophilia, which is caused by a sex-linked
recessive gene (Xh). Leopold lived to be 31 years old and fathered a normal daughter.
What is the genotype of his daughter?
A) XHXH B) XHXh C) XhXh D) XHY
24. In peas, tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t) and, on a separate chromosome set, purple
flower (P) is dominant to white flower (p). If Gregor Mendel crosses the genotypes TtPp
and ttPp, what is the expected ratio of phenotypes in the offspring?
A) 9/16 tall purple flowered, 3/16 tall white, 3/16 dwarf purple, 1/16 dwarf white
B) 3/8 tall purple flowered, 1/8 tall white, 3/8 dwarf purple, 1/8 dwarf white
C) 1/4 tall purple flowered, 1/4 tall white, 1/4 dwarf purple, 1/4 dwarf white
D) 3/4 tall purple flowered, 1/4 dwarf white
Colorblindness (Xb) is sex-linked and recessive. Blondie is a not a carrier (XBXB),
and her husband Dagwood is not colorblind. If their daughter Cookie marries a colorblind man, what phenotypes can Cookie expect in her sons?
A) all normal B) 1/2 colorblind, 1/2 normal C) all colorblind
26. A change in DNA base sequence from GTTAC to GTTAG would describe
A) replication B) mutation C) transcription D) translation
27. The sequencing of all 3.2 billion nucleotide bases on all human chromosomes
describes A) genetic engineering B) the human genome project
28. tRNA molecules contain anticodons and carry amino acids to be used in this process:
A) DNA replication B) transcription C) translation D) mutation
29. During DNA replication, an old DNA strand with base sequence ATCTGAGTA
would serve as a template to form a new complementary strand with the base sequence:
A) TAGACTCAT B) ATCTGAGTA C) AUCUCUGUA
30. Biology is defined as A) the science of composition of substances & changes in
composition B) the record of humankind’s years on earth, written by the
winners C) hours of fun D) the study of life
Here is a list of mRNA codons and their amino acids taken from the chart in your text. Use this information to answer #32 and #33:
AAU – asparagine AUC – isoleucine CAA – glutamine CAU – histidine
CGU – arginine CUU – leucine GAA – glutamate GAU – aspartate
GCA – alanine GGC – glycine UGU – cysteine
32. The sequence of amino acids of Arginine-Alanine-Leucine would be coded by this
sequence of bases on mRNA : A) CGUGCACUU B) GAAGCAGGC
C) GUGCACAA D) GCACGTGAA
33. A sequence of bases on a DNA strand of CTACTTCGT would code for this amino
A) Aspartate-Glutamate-Alanine B) Glutamine-Cysteine- Histidine
C) Leucine-Glutamate-Histidine D) Leucine-Asparagine-Alanine
Match function with organelle. Use each answer once.
34. move sperm A.chromosomes
35. package proteins for secretion from cell B. ribosomes
36. site of oxidation of glucose to generate ATP C. mitochondria
37. proteins or polypeptides are made on these small D. flagella
38. contains DNA E. Golgi apparatus
SHORT ANSWER. Answer in a few sentences in your own words. Be concise.
39. Describe 3 differences in structure between plant cells and animal cells.
40. What is the function of chlorophyll in photosynthesis? What is the function of sucrose in plants? Why is sucrose called a “double sugar” disaccharide?
41. Your friend says to you, “Hey, you are taking biology, what do they mean by genetically engineered food and why might there be a problem with it?” Give good biological answers to your friend’s questions, including a definition or description of what is meant by “genetic engineering”.
42. Explain how changing one base in DNA can cause sickle-cell anemia. Include in your answer the process “DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein”.
43. John has type B blood. John’s father has type O blood. Mary has type A blood. Both of Mary’s parents have type AB blood.
a) What is Mary’s genotype?
b) List all possible blood types (= phenotypes) of John and Mary’s offspring and explain your reasoning.
44. The nonnative evergreen blackberry has invaded the thick grasses of some abandoned agricultural fields in Olympic National Park. A related native species, salmonberry, has not invaded the fields, even though it is common in the surrounding rain forest. Elk are abundant in the area, love to eat salmonberry plants, but do not eat evergreen blackberry because of its big thorns.
Make one hypothesis on why the fields are invaded by evergreen blackberry and not by salmonberry. Briefly describe one experiment that will test your hypothesis. In your experiment, identify the control group and the experimental group.
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1. Which of the following includes all the others?